|Native to||Botswana, Namibia|
|Region||Southern Ghanzi, northern Kgalagadi, western Southern and western Kweneng districts in Botswana; southern Omaheke and northeastern Hardap regions in Namibia.|
|Native speakers||2,000–3,500 (2013)|
Taa //, also known as ǃXoon, ǃXóõ // or Tsasi, is a Khoisan language known for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world. As of 2007, it was spoken by about 6,000 people. These are mainly in Botswana, but a few hundred live in Namibia. The people call themselves ǃXoon (pl. ǃXooŋake) or ʼNǀohan (pl. Nǀumde), depending on the dialect they speak.
Taa is the word for 'human being'; the local name of the language is Taa ǂaan, from ǂaan 'language'. ǃXoon is an ethnonym used at opposite ends of the Taa-speaking area, but not by Taa speakers in between. Most living Taa speakers are ethnic ǃXoon (plural ǃXooŋake) or 'Nǀohan (plural Nǀumde).
ǀʼAuni (extinct), Kiǀhazi (extinct), Nǀgamani (extinct), Ngǀuǁen (extinct), Nǀu-san, Kakia (extinct), Xatia (Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens, ǀKusi, ǀEikusi, Masarwa), ǃKwi.
There is much confusion with these names. For example, ǀʼAuni (which is now generally considered part of a separate language, Lower Nossob) is also the name of a dialect of Nǁng, in the ǃKwi family; and Nguen, Nǀu-san are alternate names of that language. ǃKwi may also be a ǃKwi dialect rather than a dialect of Taa. Kakia may be a separate language in the Taa family, and Xatia etc may be variants of that name. Nonetheless, there is dialectal variation in Taa, which might be better described as a dialect continuum than as a single language.
Taa dialects fall into two rather divergent groups:
- West Taa
- West ǃXoon
- Nǀuǁʼen (Nusan, Nǀusan)†
- East Taa
- East ǃXoon
Traill worked with East ǃXoon, and the DoBeS project is working with ʼNǀohan and West ǃXoon. Botswanan dialects are not well described, though a survey was scheduled to partially remedy that in 2007.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (July 2010)|
Taa has at least 58 consonants, 31 vowels, and four tones (Traill 1985, 1994 on East ǃXoon), or at least 87 consonants, 20 vowels, and two tones (DoBeS 2008 on West ǃXoon), by many counts the most of any known language. These include 20 (Traill) or 43 (DoBeS) click consonants and several vowel phonations, though opinions vary as to which of the 130 (Traill) or 164 (DoBeS) consonant sounds are single segments and which are consonant clusters.
Traill describes four tones for the East ǃXoon dialect: high [á], mid [ā], low [à], and mid-falling [â]. DoBeS describes two tones, high and low, for the West ǃXoon dialect. This may reflect a difference in analysis rather than a difference in the tone systems.
Taa has five vowel qualities, [a e i o u]. The Traill and DoBes descriptions differ in the phonations of these vowels; it is not clear if this reflects a dialectical difference or a difference of analysis.
East ǃXoon (Traill)
Traill describes the phonations of the East ǃXoon dialect as plain, murmured, or glottalized. [a o u] may also be both glottalized and murmured, as well as pharyngealized or strident. [a u] may be both pharyngealized and glottalized, for 26 vowels not counting nasalization or length.
Murmured vowels after plain consonants contrast with plain vowels after aspirated consonants, and likewise glottalized vowels with ejective consonants, so these are phonations of the vowels and not assimilation with consonant phonation.
Vowels may be long or short, but long vowels may be sequences rather than distinct phonemes. The other vowel quality sequences (diphthongs?), disregarding the added complexity of phonation, are [ai, ae, ao, au, oi, oe, oa, ou, ui, ue, ua].
All plain vowels may be nasalized. No other phonation may be nasalized, but nasalization occurs in combination with other phonations as the second vowel of a sequence ("long vowel" or "diphthong"). These sequences alternate dialectically with vowel plus velar nasal. That is, the name ǃXóõ may be dialectically [kǃxóŋ], and this in turn may be phonemically /kǃxóɲ/, since [ɲ] does not occur word-finally. However, this cannot explain the short nasal vowels, so Taa has at least 31 vowels.
A long, glottalized, murmured, nasalized o with falling tone is written ⟨ôʼhõ⟩. A long, strident nasalized o with low tone is written ⟨òqhõ⟩, since Traill analyzes stridency as phonemically pharyngealized murmur. (Note that phonetically these are distinct phonations.)
West ǃXoon (DoBeS)
DoBeS describes the phonations of the West ǃXoon dialect as plain, a e i o u; nasalized, an en in on un; epiglottalized or pharyngealized, aq eq iq oq uq; strident, aqh eqh iqh oqh uqh; and glottalized or 'tense', aʼ eʼ iʼ oʼ uʼ.
Taa is unusual in allowing mixed voicing in its consonants. These have been called "prevoiced", but they actually appear to be consonant clusters. When homorganic, as in [dt], such clusters are listed in the chart below.
Taa consonants are complex, and it is not clear how much of the difference between the dialects is real and how much is an artifact of analysis.
East ǃXoon (Traill)
Marginal or rare consonants are in parentheses. Asterisks mark consonants added in 1994, which are likely also marginal or rare. A parenthetical alternative is the analysis of Miller (2011).
|Oral stop||voiced||d||dz||ɡ (?)||ɢ ~ ɴɢ (?)|
|aspirated||pʰ*||tʰ||tsʰ||kʰ (?)||qʰ (?)|
|ɡkʰ* (?)||ɢqʰ ~ ɴɢqʰ (?)|
|ejective||tʼ*||tsʼ||kʼ*, kxʼ (?)||(qʼ) (?)|
|ejective cluster||dtsʼ (?)||ɡkxʼ (?)|
|Other||(β)||(l)||(dʲ ~ j)|
The nasal [ɲ] only occurs between vowels, and [ŋ] only word finally (and then only in some dialects), so these may be allophones. [β], [l], [j] also only occur in medial position.
The mixed-voice consonants have long been puzzling. Miller-Ockhuizen (2003) analyzes them as breathy voiced, attributing the medial voicelessness to a larger glottal opening gesture than is found in Hindustani breathy-voiced consonants. The same four-way contrast in phonation is found in the pulmonic contour clicks. Taa is typologically unusual regardless in having mixed-voice ejectives. However, Juǀʼhoansi, which is part of the same Sprachbund as Taa, truly does have mixed voicing in [d͡tʰ, d͡tʃʰ, d͡tsʼ].
Of the velar and uvular series, Miller (2011) only reports /k, x, q/; the others in the table are marked (?).[track this down] There are additional consonant clusters, though these can also be analyzed as uvularized consonants: /pʼkxʼ (pᵡʼ), tx (tᵡ), dtx (dᵡ), tsʰx (tsᵡ), dtsʰx (dzᵡ), tʼkxʼ (tᵡʼ), dtʼkxʼ (dᵡʼ), tsʼkxʼ (tsᵡʼ), dtsʼkxʼ (dzᵡʼ)/.
Taa may have as few as 83 click sounds, if the more complex clicks are analyzed as clusters. Given the intricate clusters posited seen in the non-click consonants, it is not surprising that many of the Taa clicks should be analyzed as clusters. However, there is some debate whether these actually are actually clusters; all non-Khoisan languages in the world which have clusters allow clusters with sonorants like r, l, w, j (as in English tree, sleep, quick, cue), and this does not occur in Taa.
There are five click types: bilabial, dental, lateral, alveolar, and palatal. There are seventeen series, differing in phonation, manner, and complexity (what were traditionally considered uvular clicks, but which are now analyzed either as clusters or as airstream contours). These are perfectly normal consonants in Taa, and indeed are preferred over non-clicks in word-initial position.
|noisy clicks||'sharp' clicks||manner, along with speaker or dialect variation||DoBeS CC
|kʘʰ*||kǀʰ||kǁʰ||kǃʰ||kǂʰ||Aspirated (kʰ)||kǂ + qʰ||ǂʰ *|
|ɡʘh||ɡǀh||ɡǁh||ɡǃh||ɢǂh||Voiced velar plosive followed by aspiration (ɡh, ɡkʰ)||ɡǂ + qʰ||ᶢǂʱ|
|ŋʘ||ŋǀ||ŋǁ||ŋǃ||ŋǂ||Voiced nasal (ŋ)||ŋǂ||ᵑǂ|
|ŋ̊ʘ||ŋ̊ǀ||ŋ̊ǁ||ŋ̊ǃ||ŋ̊ǂ||Voiceless nasal (ŋ̊)||ŋ̊ǂ||ᵑ̊ǂ|
|↓ŋ̊ʘʰ||↓ŋ̊ǀʰ||↓ŋ̊ǁʰ||↓ŋ̊ǃʰ||↓ŋ̊ǂʰ||Ingressive voiceless nasal with delayed aspiration (↓ŋ̊ʰ)||kǂ + h||ᵑ̊ǂʰ|
|kʘˀ||kǀˀ||kǁˀ||kǃˀ||kǂˀ||Glottalized plosive (kˀ)||kǂ + ʔ||ᵑǂˀ *|
|ˀŋʘ||ˀŋǀ||ˀŋǁ||ˀŋǃ||ˀŋǂ||Preglottalized nasal (ˀŋ)||kǂ + mˀ/nˀ||ˀᵑǂ|
|qʘ||qǀ||qǁ||qǃ||qǂ||Tenuis uvular (q)||kǂ + q||ǂ͡q|
|(qʘʰ?)*||Aspirated uvular (qʰ)||?||ǂ͡qʰ *|
|ɢʘ||ɢǀ||ɢǁ||ɢǃ||ɢǂ||(Prenasalized) voiced uvular (ɢ, ɴɢ)||kǂ + ɢ||ᶢǂ͡ɢ|
|ɢǀh||ɢǃh||ɢǂh||Voiced (prenasalized) uvular plosive followed by aspiration, velar frication,
or uvular trill (ᴺɢh, ᴺɢx, ᴺɢʀ)
|ɡǂ + ɢqʰ||ᶢǂ͡ɢʱ|
|kʘˣ||kǀˣ||kǁˣ||kǃˣ||kǂˣ||Voiceless affricate (kˣ)||kǂ + x||ǂ͡qχ|
|ɡʘx||ɡǀx||ɡǁx||ɡǃx||ɡǂx||Voiced velar plosive followed by voiceless velar fricative (ɡx, ɡkx)||ɡǂ + x||ᶢǂ͡ɢʁ|
|qʘʼ||qǀʼ||qǁʼ||qǃʼ||qǂʼ||Uvular ejective (qʼ)||kǂ + qʼ||ǂ͡qʼ|
|kʘʼqʼ||kǀʼqʼ||kǁʼqʼ||kǃʼqʼ||kǂʼqʼ||Velar ejective followed by uvular ejective (kʼqʼ, dialectically kxʼ)||kǂ + kxʼ||ǂ͡kxʼ|
|ɡʘqʼ||ɡǀqʼ||ɡǁqʼ||ɡǃqʼ||ɡǂqʼ||Voiced velar plosive followed by uvular ejective (ɡqʼ, dialectically ɡkxʼ)||ɡǂ + kxʼ||ᶢǂ͡kxʼ|
The DoBeS project takes Traill's cluster analysis to mean that only the twenty tenuis, voiced, nasal, and voiceless nasal clicks are basic, with the rest being clusters of the tenuis and voiced clicks with x, kxʼ, q, ɢ, qʰ, ɢqʰ, qʼ, ʔ, h and either mˀ or nˀ. Recent work on Taa's sister language Nǁng suggests that all clicks in both languages have a uvular or rear articulation, and that the clicks considered to be uvular here are actually lingual–pulmonic and lingual–glottalic airstream contours. It may be that the 'prevoiced' consonants of Taa, including prevoiced clicks, can also be analysed as contour consonants, in this case with voicing contours.
*There is a misalignment in the source tables: DoBeS has 17 series, Miller (2011) 19, with the additional distinctions apparently being ǂʰ vs. ǂ͡qʰ and ᵑǂˀ vs. ǂˀ.
All nasal clicks have twin airstreams, since the air passing through the nose bypasses the tongue. Usually this is pulmonic egressive. However, the ↓ŋ̊ʰ series in Taa is characterized by pulmonic ingressive nasal airflow. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:268) state that "This ǃXóõ click is probably unique among the sounds of the world's languages that, even in the middle of a sentence, it may have ingressive pulmonic airflow." Taa is the only language known to contrast voiceless nasal and voiceless nasal aspirated clicks (Miller 2011).
West ǃXoon (DoBeS)
West ǃXoon has 164 consonants in a strict unit analysis, including 111 clicks in 23 series, which under a cluster analysis reduce to 87 consonants, including 43 clicks.
These are written in the practical orthography (Naumann 2008). Marginal consonants are not marked as such.
|non-click consonants||labial||alveolar||palatal||velar||uvular||clicks (5)||glottal|
|oral stop||voiced||b [b]||d [d]||dz [d͡z]||g [ɡ]||gq [ᶰɢ]||gǃ etc.|
|tenuis||p [p]||t [t]||ts [t͡s]||k [k]||q [q]||kǃ etc.||ʼ [ʔ]|
|aspirated||ph [pʰ]||th [tʰ]||t͡sh [tsʰ]||kh [kʰ]||qh [qʰ]||ǃh etc.|
|voiced aspirated||bh [bʱ]||dh [dʱ]||dzh [d͡zʱ]||gh [ɡʱ]||gqh [ᶰɢʱ]||gǃh etc.|
|ejective||pʼ [pʼ]||tʼ [tʼ]||tsʼ [t͡sʼ]||kʼ [kʼ]||qʼ [qʼ]||qxʼ [q͡χʼ]||ǃʼ etc.|
|voiced 'ejective'||dzʼ [d͡zʔ]||gʼ [ɡʔ]||gqʼ [ɢʔ]||gqxʼ [ɢʁʔ]||gǃʼ etc.|
|fricative||voiceless||f [f]||s [s]||x [χ]||h [ɦ]|
|nasal||voiced||m [m]||n ~ nn [n]||ny [ ɲ]||ng [ŋ]||nǃ etc.|
|glottalized||ʼm [ˀm]||ʼn [ˀn]||ʼnǃ etc.|
|approximant||w? [w]||l [l]||y [j]|
Reported clusters in x are tx, dx, tsx, dzx; clusters in qxʼ are pqxʼ, tqxʼ, dqxʼ, tsqxʼ, dzqxʼ, though these can be analyzed as uvularized consonants, /tᵡ, dᵡ, t͡sᵡ, d͡zᵡ, pᵡʼ, tᵡʼ, dᵡʼ, t͡sᵡʼ, d͡zᵡʼ/.
The identification of voiceless/voiced pairs of click clusters is aided by the morphology of West ǃXoon, where a significant number of nouns have a voiceless first consonant in the singular and a voiced first consonant in the plural. The rows of clicks below are all arranged in voiceless-voiced pairs, except for the pre-glottalized nasal clicks, which don't have a voiceless counterpart.
|'noisy' clicks||'sharp' clicks||DoBeS cluster
|Clicks analyzed as segments|
|ʘh||ǀh||ǁh||ǃh||ǂh||ǂʰ||ǂʰ||Aspirated. ⟨ǂha⟩ is explosively aspirated [ǂʜa].|
|gʘh||gǀh||gǁh||gǃh||gǂh||ᶢǂʱ||ᶢǂʱ||Breathy voiced. ⟨gǂh⟩ is phonetically [ǂ̬ʱa]|
|ʘʼ||ǀʼ||ǁʼ||ǃʼ||ǂʼ||ǂʼ||ǂˀ||Ejective. ⟨ǂʼa⟩ is phonetically [ǂkʼʔa]; the strong burst of the [kʼ] immediately follows that of the [ǂ], but there is a delay before the onset of the vowel comparable to that of ⟨ǂ"a⟩ [ǂʔa].|
|gǀʼ||gǁʼ||gǃʼ||gǂʼ||ᶢǂʼ||ᶢǂˀ||⟨gǂʼa⟩ is phonetically [ǂ̬ʔă̰a], with a creaky onset to the vowel.|
|nhǀ||nhǁ||nhǃ||nhǂ||ᵑ̊ǂ||ᵑ̊ǂ||Voiceless nasal. ⟨nǂa⟩ is phonetically [ŋ̊ǂ̃ã], nasal with voiceless prenasalization even between vowels.|
|nʘ||nǀ||nǁ||nǃ||nǂ||ᵑǂ||ᵑǂ||Voiced nasal. ⟨nǂa⟩ is phonetically [ŋ̈ǂ̃ã], nasal with murmured prenasalization.|
|ʼnʘ||ʼnǀ||ʼnǁ||ʼnǃ||ʼnǂ||ˀᵑǂ||ˀᵑǂ||Preglottalized nasal. ⟨ʼnǂa⟩ is phonetically [ʔŋ̆ǂ̃ã], nasal with a glottal stop and brief prenasalization.|
|Clicks analyzed as clusters|
|ʘ"||ǀ"||ǁ"||ǃ"||ǂ"||/ǂ/ + /ʔ/||ᵑ̊ǂˀ||Initial ⟨ǂ"a⟩ is phonetically [ǂʔa]; after a vowel, ⟨a ǂ"a⟩ is [ãǂ̃ʔa] or [ãŋǂ̃ʔa]. The (allophonic) nasal venting may maintain low air pressure to contrast with the ejective click ⟨ǂʼa⟩.|
|nʘ"||nǀ"||nǁ"||nǃ"||nǂ"||/ᶢǂ/ + /ʔ/||ᵑǂˀ||⟨nǂ"a⟩ is phonetically [ŋǂ̃ˀa]. The (allophonic) nasal venting may maintain low air pressure to contrast with the ejective click ⟨gǂʼa⟩.|
|ʘhh||ǀhh||ǁhh||ǃhh||ǂhh||/ǂ/ + /h/||ᵑ̊ǂʰ||⟨ǂhha⟩ is phonetically [ŋ̊ǂha]; the [h] is weak. The (allophonic) nasal venting may maintain low air pressure to contrast with the aspirated click ⟨ǂha⟩.|
|nʘhh||nǀhh||nǁhh||nǃhh||nǂhh||/ᶢǂ/ + /h/||ᵑǂʱ||⟨nǂhha⟩ is phonetically [ŋǂ̬ɦa]. The (allophonic) nasal venting may maintain low air pressure to contrast with the voiced aspirated click ⟨gǂha⟩.|
|qʘ||qǀ||qǁ||qǃ||qǂ||/ǂ/ + /q/||ǂ͡q||Two releases, /ǂ/ and /q/|
|gʘq||gǀq||gǁq||gǃq||gǂq||/ᶢǂ/ + /q/||ǂ͡ɢ|
|ʘqh||ǀqh||ǁqh||ǃqh||ǂqh||/ǂ/ + /qʰ/||ǂ͡qʰ||Two releases, /ǂ/ and /qʰ/|
|gǀqh||gǁqh||gǃqh||gǂqh||/ᶢǂ/ + /qʰ/||ǂ͡ɢʱ||Phonetically [qʰ] to [ɢʱ]|
|ʘqʼ||ǀqʼ||ǁqʼ||ǃqʼ||ǂqʼ||/ǂ/ + /qʼ/||ǂ͡qʼ||⟨ǂqʼa⟩ is phonetically /ǂqʔa/.|
|gǀqʼ||gǁqʼ||gǃqʼ||gǂqʼ||/ᶢǂ/ + /qʼ/||ᶢǂ͡qʼ|
|ʘx||ǀx||ǁx||ǃx||ǂx||/ǂ/ + /χ/||ǂ͡χ||DoBeS: analogous to ⟨tx, tsx⟩|
|gʘx||gǀx||gǁx||gǃx||gǂx||/ᶢǂ/ + /χ/||ᶢǂ͡ʁ||DoBeS: analogous to ⟨dx, dzx⟩|
|ʘqxʼ||ǀqxʼ||ǁqxʼ||ǃqxʼ||ǂqxʼ||/ǂ/ + /qχʼ/||ǂ͡χʼ||DoBeS: analogous to ⟨pqxʼ, tqxʼ, tsqxʼ⟩|
|gʘqxʼ||gǀqxʼ||gǁqxʼ||gǃqxʼ||gǂqxʼ||/ᶢǂ/ + /qχʼ/||ᶢǂ͡χʼ||DoBeS: analogous to ⟨dqxʼ, dzqxʼ⟩|
Vowel nasalization is only phonemic on the second mora (in CCVV etc. syllables), as it is a phonetic effect of clicks such as ⟨nǂhh⟩ on the first mora. ⟨nǂhh⟩ does not make the following vowel breathy, maintaining a contrast between ⟨nǂhha⟩ and ⟨nǂhhah⟩. Likewise, while ⟨gǂʼ⟩ does make the following vowel creaky, there is a delayed onset to the vowel and the amplitude of the glottalization is less than that of ⟨gǂaʼ⟩ with a phonemically creaky vowel.
In an attempt to keep the phonemic inventory as symmetric as possible, the DoBeS team analyzed as segments two of the click types that Traill analyzed as clusters. These are (using the palatal clicks as examples) the pre-glottalized nasal clicks, ʼnǂ, which Traill had analyzed as /ǂ/ + /ʼn/, and the voiced aspirated clicks, gǂh, which Traill had analyzed as /ɡǂ/ + /qʰ/.
The expectation, from the morphology of ǃXoon, for voiceless-voiced pairs of click clusters led to the discovery of several series not distinguished by Traill. (This morphology appears to be more pervasive in West ǃXoon than in the East ǃXoon dialect that Traill worked on.) Thus for Trail's ǂqh, the DoBeS team distinguishes two phonemes, ǂqh and ǂh, and for Traill's ǂʼ, they have ǂ" and ǂʼ. It also lead to the discovery of voiced click types which may not exist in East ǃXoon at all, namely nǂ", nǂhh, gǂʼ, and gǂqʼ.
Under the contour analysis of Miller (2009), the distinction between simple and contour clicks largely parallels the DoBeS identification of clusters, apart from the last four rows (ǂ", nǂ", ǂhh, nǂhh), which are considered to be simple clicks.
The Taa syllable structure, as described by DoBeS, may be one of the following:
where C is a consonant, V is a vowel, and N is a nasal stop. There is a very limited number of consonants which can occur in the second (C2) position and only certain vowel sequences (VV and V…V) occur. The possible consonant clusters (CC) is covered above; C2 may be [b~β̞], [dʲ~j], [l], [m], [n], [ɲ].
|This section requires expansion. (July 2010)|
Taa is a subject–verb–object language with serial verbs and inflecting prepositions. Genitives, adjectives, relative clauses, and numbers come after the nouns they apply to. Reduplication is used to form causatives. There are seven nominal agreement classes in two tone groups which combine for nine or more grammatical genders. Agreement occurs on pronouns, transitive verbs (with the object), adjectives, prepositions, and some "particles".
Anthony Traill did extensive research concerning the language and its various aspects. He even wrote a dictionary of the Taa language, named A ǃXóõ Dictionary, as well as a book on the phonetics of the language.
These example phrases are from the Eastern ǃXóõ dialect and were compiled by Anthony Traill.
ǃnˤù.ṵ ì à ǁʼà-be ǃù.m ʘàa sâa Hare.14 1PRO PST take:S-3 Eland.3 child:34 thither "As for Hare, she took Eland's child away."
ǃqháa̰ kū ǂnûm ǁɢˤûlitê ǀè dtxóʔlu ǀnàe ǂʼá sˤàa̰ give MPO:4PRO two genital:22-P ASS:3 stench:3 DAT:3PRO COM:2 fat:22 "Give them their stinking genitals with the fat!"
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2008)|
- Alan Barnard () Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa, p xxii.
- Gertrud Boden, 2007, ǃQamtee ǀaa ǂXanya: 'the Book of Traditions' : Histories, Texts and Illustrations from the ǃXoon and 'Nǀohan People of Namibia
- DoBeS, Taa
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 63, 80–81. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Traill, Anthony (1994). A ǃXóõ Dictionary. (Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung, vol. 9). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. ISBN 3-927620-56-4.
- Naumann, Christfied (2008). "The Consonantal System of West ǃXoon". 3rd International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics. Riezlern.
- Traill, Anthony (1985). Phonetic and Phonological Studies of ǃXóõ Bushman. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. ISBN 3-87118-669-4.
- Map of Taa language (ǃXóõ) from the LL-Map Project
- Information on Taa language from the MultiTree Project
- DoBeS Taa language project
- Large collection of ǃXóõ parts of speech based on the 2009 ǃXóõ dictionary
- Swadesh list for ǃXóõ
- Ethnologue Report for ǃXóõ/Taa
- UCLA Archive for ǃXóõ, includes story and language sound files
- Taa basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database