Percent sign

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%
Percent sign
‰ 
Per mille  Per ten thousand
Punctuation
apostrophe   '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash   –  —  ―
ellipsis   ...  . . .
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
hyphen
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /  
Word dividers
interpunct ·
space     
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
bullet
caret ^
dagger † ‡
degree °
ditto mark
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
number sign, pound, hash, octothorpe #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
plus and minus + −
basis point
pilcrow
prime     
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
trademark
Uncommon typography
asterism
hedera
index, fist
interrobang
irony punctuation
lozenge
reference mark
tie
Related
In other scripts

The percent sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage, a number or ratio as a fraction of 100. Related signs include the permille (per thousand) sign ‰ and the permyriad (per ten thousand) sign (also known as a basis point), which indicate that a number is divided by one thousand or ten thousand respectively. Higher proportions use parts-per notation.

Correct style[edit]

Spacing[edit]

English style guides prescribe writing the number and percent sign without any space between.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] However, the International System of Units and ISO 31-0 standard prescribe a space between the number and percent sign,[8][9][10] in line with the general practice of using a non-breaking space between a numerical value and its corresponding unit of measurement.

Other languages have other rules for spacing in front of the percent sign:

  • In Czech, the percent sign is spaced if the number is used as a noun, whereas no space is inserted if the number is used as an adjective (e.g. “a 50% increase”).[11]
  • In Finnish, the percent sign is always spaced, and a case suffix can be attached to it using the colon (e.g. 50 %:n kasvu 'an increase of 50%').[citation needed]
  • In French, the percent sign must be spaced with a non-breaking space.[citation needed]
  • In Spanish, the percent sign is always spaced in accordance to the way unit symbols are spaced.[12]
  • In traditional Russian typography there is a set rule to space it by 3 pt but it is not that common in Russia today.[citation needed]
  • In Chinese the percent sign is almost never spaced, probably because Chinese does not use spaces to separate characters or words at all.[citation needed]
  • According to the Swedish Language Council, the percent sign should be preceded by a space in Swedish.
  • In German the space is prescribed by the regulatory body in the national standard DIN 5008.
  • In Persian, the percent sign precedes rather than follows the number. In this language, the slash sign (/) is the equivalent for the decimal point in English and other Latin-based languages. For example, 1 hundredth is written as 0/01. It is thought that the percent sign has evolved in this language from condensation of 0/0 to %. Hence 0/01 (0.01) has evolved to %1 or one percent.

Usage in text[edit]

It is often recommended that the percent sign only be used in tables and other places with space restrictions. In running text, it should be spelled out as percent or per cent (often in newspapers). For example, not "Sales increased by 24% over 2006", but rather "Sales increased by 24 percent over 2006".[13][14][15]

Evolution[edit]

Prior to 1425 there is no evidence of a special symbol being used for percentage. The Italian term per cento, "for a hundred", was used as well as several different abbreviations (e.g. "per 100", "p 100", "p cento", etc.). Examples of this can be seen in the 1339 arithmetic text (author unknown) depicted below.[16] The letter p with its shaft crossed by a horizontal or diagonal strike conventionally stood for per, por, par, or pur in Mediaeval and Renaissance palaeography.[17]

1339 arithmetic text
1339 arithmetic text in Rara Arithmetica pg. 437

At some point a scribe of some sort used the abbreviation "pc" with a tiny loop or circle (depicting the ending -o used in Italian numeration for primo, secondo, etc.) This appears in some additional pages of a 1425 text which were probably added around 1435.[18] This is shown below (source, Rara Arithmetica pg. 440).

1425 arithmetic text in Rara Arithmetica pg. 440

The "pc" with a loop eventually evolved into a horizontal fraction sign by 1650 (see below for an example in a 1684 text[19]) and thereafter lost the "per".[20]

1684 arithmetic text
1684 arithmetic text in Rara Arithmetica pg. 441

In 1925 D.E. Smith wrote, "The solidus form (Poor Richard font) is modern."[21]

Usage[edit]

Encodings[edit]

Unicode[edit]

The Unicode code points are:

  • U+0025 % percent sign (HTML: %),
  • U+FF05 full-width percent sign (HTML: %),
  • U+2030 per mille sign (HTML: ‰ ‰) and
  • U+2031 per ten thousand sign (HTML: ‱) a.k.a. basis point.

There is also U+066A ٪ arabic percent sign (HTML: ٪), which has the circles replaced by square dots set on edge.

ASCII[edit]

The ASCII code for the percent character is 37, or 0x25 in hexadecimal.

In computers[edit]

Names for the percent sign include percent sign (in ITU-T), mod, grapes (in hacker jargon), and the humorous double-oh-seven (in INTERCAL).

In computing, the percent character is also used for the modulo operation in programming languages that derive their syntax from the C programming language, which in turn acquired this usage from the earlier B.[22]

In the textual representation of URIs, a % immediately followed by a 2-digit hexadecimal number denotes an octet specifying (part of) a character that might otherwise not be allowed in URIs (see percent-encoding).

In SQL, the percent sign is a wildcard character in "LIKE" expressions, for example SELECT * FROM table WHERE fullname LIKE 'Lisa %' will fetch all records whose names start with "Lisa ".

In TeX (and therefore also in LaTeX) and PostScript, a % denotes a line comment.

In BASIC, a trailing % after a variable name marks it as an integer.

In Perl % is the sigil for hashes.

In many programming languages' string formatting operations (performed by functions such as printf), the percent sign denotes parts of the template string that will be replaced with arguments. (See printf format string.) In Python and Ruby the percent sign is also used as the string formatting operator.[23]

In the command processors COMMAND.COM (DOS) and CMD.EXE (OS/2 and Windows), %1, %2,... stand for the first, second,... parameters of a batch file.  %0 stands for the specification of the batch file itself as typed on the command line. The % sign is also used similarly in the FOR command. %VAR1% represents the value of an environment variable named VAR1. Thus:

set PATH=c:\;%PATH%

sets a new value for PATH, that being the old value preceded by "c:\;". Because these uses give the percent sign special meaning, the sequence %% (two percent signs) is used to represent a literal percent sign, so that:

set PATH=c:\;%%PATH%%

would set PATH to the literal value "c:\;%PATH%".

In the C Shell, % is part of the default command prompt.

In linguistics[edit]

In linguistics, the percent sign is prepended to an example string to show that it is judged well-formed by some speakers and ill-formed by others. This may be due to differences in dialect or even individual idiolects. This is similar to the asterisk to mark ill-formed strings, the question mark to mark strings where well-formedness is unclear, and the number sign to mark strings that are syntactically well-formed but semantically nonsensical.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Guardian and Observer style guide.
  2. ^ "The Chicago Manual of Style". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  3. ^ Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 1994. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, p. 114.
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster's Manual for Writers and Editors. 1998. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, p. 128.
  5. ^ Jenkins, Jana et al. 2011. The IBM Style Guide: Conventions for Writers and Editors. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, p. 162.
  6. ^ Covey, Stephen R. FranklinCovey Style Guide: For Business and Technical Communication. Salt Lake City, UT: FranklinCovey, p. 287.
  7. ^ Dodd, Janet S. 1997. The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, p. 264.
  8. ^ "SI brochure". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. 2006. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  9. ^ "The International System of Units". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  10. ^ "Quantities and units – Part 0: General principles". International Organization for Standardization. 1999-12-22. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  11. ^ "Jazyková poradna ÚJČ AV ČR: FAQ". Ústav pro jazyk český Akademie věd ČR. 2002. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  12. ^ "el % se escribe separado de la cifra a la que acompaña" (in Spanish). Fundéu BBVA. September 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  13. ^ American Economic Review: Style Guide
  14. ^ UNC Pharmacy style guide
  15. ^ University of Colorado style guide
  16. ^ Smith 1898, pg. 437
  17. ^ - See the letter p.
  18. ^ Smith 1898, pp. 439-440
  19. ^ Smith 1898, pg. 441
  20. ^ Smith 1898, pg. 440
  21. ^ Smith 1925, Vol. 2, pg.250 in Dover reprint of 1958, ISBN 0-486-20430-8
  22. ^ Thompson, Ken (1996). "Users' Reference to B". 
  23. ^ "String Formatting Operations". 

References[edit]