‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Center of the Cause
May 23, 1844
|Died||28 November 1921
Haifa, Mandatory Palestine
|Spouse(s)||Munírih Khánum (1873-1921)|
|Children||Ḍiyá'iyyih Khánum, Túbá Khánum, Rúhá Khánum, Munavvar Khánum, (amongst others)|
Mother: Ásíyih Khánum
`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Arabic: عبد البهاء, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born ‘Abbás Effendí, was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. In 1892, `Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed in his father's will to be his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith. `Abdu'l-Bahá was born in Tehran to an aristocratic family of the realm. At the age of eight his father was imprisoned and the family's possessions were looted, leaving them in virtual poverty. Along with his father, `Abdu'l-Bahá was exiled to Baghdad where the family lived for nine years.
During his youth he was faithful to his father and was regarded as an outstanding member of the Bahá’í exile community. As a teenager he was his father’s amanuensis and was regularly seen debating theological issues with the learned men of the area. In 1863 Bahá'u'lláh was again exiled to Constantinople. During the 1860s the family was banished from Constantinople to Adrianople, and then finally to the penal-colony of Acre, Palestine.
With his father's death in 1892, and his appointment as head of the Bahá’í faith, there was much opposition to him, including virtually all his family members. Notwithstanding this, practically all of the worldwide Bahá’í community accepted his leadership. In 1908, at the age of 64 and after forty years imprisonment, `Abdu’l-Bahá was freed by the Young Turks and he and his family began to live in relative safety. His journeys to the West, and his "Tablets of the Divine Plan" spread the Bahá'í message beyond its middle-eastern roots, and his Will and Testament laid the foundation for the current "Bahá'í administrative order. Many of his writings, prayers and letters are extant, and his discourses with the Western Bahá'ís emphasize the growth of the faith by the late 1890s. `Abdu'l-Bahá's given name was `Abbás, but he preferred the title of `Abdu'l-Bahá (servant of the glory of God). He is commonly referred to in Bahá'í texts as "The Master", and received the title of KBE after his personal storage of grain was used to relieve famine in Palestine following World War I, but never used the title.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Baghdad
- 3 Constantinople/Adrianople
- 4 Acre
- 5 Early years of his ministry
- 6 Journeys to the West
- 7 Final years
- 8 Works
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
`Abdu'l-Bahá was born in Tehran, Iran on 23 May 1844 (5th of Jamadiyu'l-Avval, 1260 AH), the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. He was born on the very same night on which the Báb declared his mission. Born with the given name of `Abbás, he was named after his grandfather Mírzá `Abbás Núrí, a prominent and powerful nobleman. As a child, `Abdu'l-Bahá was shaped by his father's position as a prominent Bábí. He recalled how he met the Bábí leader Táhirih and how she would take "me on to her knee, caress me, and talk to me. I admired her most deeply". `Abdu’l-Bahá had a happy and carefree childhood. The family’s Tehran home and country houses were comfortable and beautifully decorated. `Abdu'l-Bahá enjoyed playing in the gardens with his younger sister with whom he was very close. Along with his younger siblings— a sister, Bahíyyih, and a brother, Mihdí— the three lived in an environment of privilege, happiness and comfort. With his father's declination of the position as minister of the court; during his young boyhood `Abdu’l-Bahá witnessed his parents' various charitable endeavours, which included converting part of the home to a hospital ward for women and children.
`Abdu'l-Bahá received a haphazard education during his childhood. It was customary not to send children of nobility to schools. Most noblemen were educated at home briefly in scripture, rhetoric, calligraphy and basic mathematics. Many were educated to prepare themselves for life in the royal court. Despite a brief spell at a traditional preparatory school at the age of seven for one year, `Abdu'l-Bahá received no formal education. As he grew he was educated by his mother, and uncle. Most of his education however, came from his father. Years later in 1890 Edward Granville Browne described how `Abdu'l-Bahá was "one more eloquent of speech, more ready of argument, more apt of illustration, more intimately acquainted with the sacred books of the Jews, the Christians, and the Muhammadans...scarcely be found even amongst the eloquent."
One event that affected `Abdu'l-Bahá greatly during his childhood was the imprisonment of his father when `Abdu'l-Bahá was eight years old; the imprisonment led to his family being reduced to poverty and being attacked in the streets by other children. `Abdu'l-Bahá accompanied his mother to visit Bahá'u'lláh who was then imprisoned in the infamous subterranean dungeon the Síyáh-Chál. He described how "I saw a dark, steep place. We entered a small, narrow doorway, and went down two steps, but beyond those one could see nothing. In the middle of the stairway, all of a sudden we heard His [Bahá’u’lláh's]…voice: 'Do not bring him in here', and so they took me back".
Bahá'u'lláh was eventually released from prison but ordered into exile, and `Abdu'l-Bahá then eight joined his father on the journey to Baghdad in the winter (January to April) of 1853. During the journey `Abdu'l-Bahá suffered from frost-bite. After a year of difficulties Bahá'u'lláh absented himself rather than continue to face the conflict with Mirza Yahya and secretly secluded himself in the mountains of Sulaymaniyah in April 1854 a month before `Abdu'l-Bahá's tenth birthday. Mutual sorrow resulted in him, his mother and sister becoming constant companions. `Abdu'l-Bahá was particularly close to both, and his mother took active participation in his education and upbringing. During the two-year absence of his father `Abdu'l-Bahá took up the duty of managing the affairs of the family, before his age of maturity (14 in middle-eastern society) and was known to be occupied with reading and, at a time of hand-copied scriptures being the primary means of publishing, was also engaged in copying the writings of the Báb. `Abdu’l-Bahá also took an interest in the art of horse riding and, as he grew, became a renowned rider.
In 1856, news of an ascetic carrying on discourses with local Súfí leaders that seemed to possibly be Bahá'u'lláh reached the family and friends. Immediately, family members and friends went to search for the elusive dervish – and in March brought Bahá'u'lláh back to Baghdad. On seeing his father, `Abdu'l-Bahá fell to his knees and wept loudly "Why did you leave us?", and this followed with his mother and sister doing the same. `Abdu'l-Bahá soon became his father's secretary and shield. During the sojourn in the city `Abdu’l-Bahá grew from a boy into a young man. He was noted as a "remarkably fine looking youth", and remembered for his charity and amiableness. Having passed the age of maturity `Abdu'l-Bahá was regularly seen in the mosques of Baghdad discussing religious topics and the scripture as a young man. Whilst in Baghdad, `Abdu'l-Bahá composed a commentary at the request of his father on the Muslim tradition of "I was a Hidden Treasure" for a Súfí leader named `Alí Shawkat Páshá. `Abdu'l-Bahá was fifteen or sixteen at the time and `Alí Shawkat Páshá regarded the more than 11000 word essay as a remarkable feat for somebody of his age. In 1863 in what became known as the Garden of Ridván Bahá'u'lláh announced to a few that he was the manifestation of God and He whom God shall make manifest whose coming had been foretold by the Báb. On day eight of the twelve days, it is believed `Abdu'l-Baha was the first person Baha'u'llah revealed his claim to.
In 1863 Bahá'u'lláh was summoned to Constantinople (Istanbul), and thus his whole family including `Abdu'l-Bahá, then nineteen, accompanied him on his 110-day journey. The journey to Constantinople was another wearisome journey, and `Abdu'l-Bahá helped feed the exiles. It was here that his position became more prominent amongst the Bahá’ís. This was further solidified by Bahá’u’lláh’s tablet of the Branch in which he constantly exalts his son's virtues and station. The family were soon exiled to Adrianople and `Abdu'l-Bahá went with the family. `Abdu’l-Bahá again suffered from frostbite.
In Adrianople `Abdu’l-Bahá was regarded as the sole comforter of his family – in particular to his mother. At this point `Abdu'l-Bahá was known by the Bahá'ís as "the Master", and by non-Bahá'ís as `Abbás Effendi ("Effendi" signifies "Sir"). It was in Adrianople that Bahá’u’lláh referred to his son as "the Mystery of God". The title of "Mystery of God" symbolises, according to Bahá'ís, that `Abdu'l-Bahá is not a manifestation of God but how a "person of `Abdu'l-Bahá the incompatible characteristics of a human nature and superhuman knowledge and perfection have been blended and are completely harmonized". `Abdu'l-Bahá was at this point noted for having black hair which flowed to his shoulders, large blue eyes, alabaster coloured skin and a slight Roman nose. Bahá'u'lláh gave his son many other titles such as "the Most Mighty Branch" the "Branch of Holiness", "the Center of the Covenant" and the apple of his eye. `Abdu'l-Bahá ("the Master") was devastated when hearing the news that he and his family were to be exiled separately from Bahá'u'lláh. It was, according to Bahá'ís, through his intercession that the idea was reverted and the family were allowed to be exiled together.
At the age of 24, `Abdu'l-Bahá was clearly chief-steward to his father and an outstanding member of the Bahá’í community. Bahá’u’lláh and his family were – in 1868 – exiled to the penal colony of Acre, Palestine where it was expected that the family would perish. Arrival in Acre was distressing for the family and exiles. They were greeted in a hostile manner by the surrounding population and his sister and father fell dangerously ill. When told that the women were to sit on the shoulders of the men to reach the shore, `Abdu'l-Bahá took a chair and carried the women to the bay of Acre. `Abdu'l-Bahá was able to procure some anesthetic and nursed the sick. The Bahá’ís were imprisoned under horrendous conditions in a cluster of cells covered in excrement and dirt. `Abdu'l-Bahá himself fell dangerously ill with dysentery, however a sympathetic soldier permitted a physician to help cure him. The population shunned them, the soldiers treated them the same, and the behaviour of Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani (an Azali) did not help matters. Morale was further destroyed with the accidental death of `Abdu'l-Bahá’s youngest brother Mírzá Mihdí at the age of 22. His death devastated the family – particularly his mother and father – and the grieving `Abdu'l-Bahá kept a night-long vigil beside his brother’s body.
Later in Acre
Over time, he gradually took over responsibility for the relationships between the small Bahá'i exile community and the outside world. It was through his interaction with the people of Acre that, according to the Bahá'ís, they recognized the innocence of the Bahá'ís, and thus the conditions of imprisonment were eased. Four months after the death of Mihdí the family moved from the prison to the House of `Abbúd. The people of Acre started to respect the Bahá'ís and in particular, `Abdu'l-Bahá. `Abdu'l-Bahá was able to arrange for houses to be rented for the family, the family later moved to the Mansion of Bahjí around 1879 when an epidemic caused the inhabitants to flee.
`Abdu'l-Bahá soon became very popular in the penal colony and Myron Henry Phelps a wealthy New York lawyer described how "a crowd of human beings...Syrians, Arabs, Ethiopians, and many others", all waited to talk and receive `Abdu'l-Bahá. He undertook a history of the Bábí religion through publication of A Traveller's Narrative (Makála-i-Shakhsí Sayyáh) in 1886, later translated and published in translation in 1891 through Cambridge University by the agency of Edward Granville Browne who described `Abdu'l-Bahá as:
Seldom have I seen one whose appearance impressed me more. A tall strongly built man holding himself straight as an arrow, with white turban and raiment, long black locks reaching almost to the shoulder, broad powerful forehead indicating a strong intellect combined with an unswerving will, eyes keen as a hawk's, and strongly marked but pleasing features – such was my first impression of 'Abbás Efendí, "the master".
Marriage and family life
As a young man speculation was rife amongst the Bahá’ís to whom `Abdu'l-Bahá would marry. Several young girls were seen as marriage prospects but `Abdu’l-Bahá seemed disinclined to marriage. On 8 March 1873, at the urging of his father, the twenty-eight-year-old `Abdu’l-Bahá married Fátimih Nahrí of Isfahán (1847–1938) a twenty-five-year-old noblewoman. Her father was Mírzá Muḥammad `Alí Nahrí of Isfahan an eminent Bahá’í of the city and prominent aristocrat. Fátimih was brought from Persia to Acre, Israel after both Bahá’u’lláh and his wife Navváb expressed an interest in her to marry `Abdu’l-Bahá. After a wearisome journey from Isfahán to Akka she finally arrived accompanied by her brother in 1872. The young couple were betrothed for about five months before the marriage itself commenced. In the mean time, Fátimih lived in the home of `Abdu'l-Bahá’s uncle Mírzá Músá. According to her later memoirs, Fátimih fell in love with `Abdu'l-Bahá on seeing him. `Abdu'l-Bahá himself had showed little inkling to marriage until meeting Fátimih; who was entitled Munírih by Bahá’u’lláh. Munírih is a title meaning "Luminous".
The marriage resulted in nine children. The first born was a son Mihdí Effendi who died aged about 3. He was followed by Ḍiyá'iyyih Khánum, Fu’ádíyyih Khánum (d. few years old), Rúhangíz Khánum (d. 1893), Túbá Khánum, Husayn Effendi (d.1887 aged 5), Túbá Khánum, Rúhá Khánum and Munnavar Khánum. The death of his children caused `Abdu’l-Bahá immense grief – in particular the death of his son Husayn Effendi came at a difficult time following the death of his mother and uncle. The surviving children (all daughters) were; Ḍiyá'iyyih Khánum (mother of Shoghi Effendi) (d. 1951) Túbá Khánum (1880–1959) Rúḥá Khánum and Munavvar Khánum (d. 1971). Bahá'u'lláh wished that the Bahá'ís follow the example of `Abdu'l-Bahá and gradually move away from polygamy. The marriage of `Abdu’l-Bahá to one woman and his choice to remain monogamous, from advice of his father and his own wish, legitimised the practice of monogamy to a people whom hitherto had regarded polygamy as a righteous way of life.
Early years of his ministry
After Bahá'u'lláh died on 29 May 1892, the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh named `Abdu'l-Bahá as Centre of the Covenant, successor and interpreter of Bahá'u'lláh's writings. In the Will and Testament `Abdu'l-Bahá's half-brother, Muhammad `Alí, was mentioned by name as being subordinate to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Muhammad `Alí became jealous of his half-brother and set out to establish authority for himself as an alternative leader with the support of his brothers Badi'u'llah and Diya'u'llah. He began correspondence with Bahá'ís in Iran, initially in secret, casting doubts in others' minds about `Abdu'l-Bahá. While most Bahá'ís followed `Abdu'l-Bahá, a handful followed Muhammad `Alí including such leaders as Mirza Javad and Ibrahim Khayru'llah, the famous Bahá'í missionary to America.
Muhammad `Alí and Mirza Javad began to openly accuse `Abdu'l-Bahá of taking on too much authority, suggesting that he believed himself to be a Manifestation of God, equal in status to Bahá'u'lláh. It was at this time that `Abdu'l-Bahá, in order to provide proof of the falsity of the accusations leveled against him, in tablets to the West, stated that he was to be known as "`Abdu'l-Bahá" an Arabic phrase meaning the Servant of Bahá to make it clear that he was not a Manifestation of God, and that his station was only servitude. `Abdu'l-Bahá left a Will and Testament that set up the framework of administration. The two highest institutions were the Universal House of Justice, and the Guardianship, for which he appointed Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian.
First Western pilgrims
By the end of 1898, Western pilgrims started coming to Akka on pilgrimage to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá; this group of pilgrims, including Phoebe Hearst, was the first time that Bahá'ís raised up in the West had met `Abdu'l-Bahá. The first group arrived in 1898 and throughout late 1898 to early 1899 Western Bahá’ís sporadically visited `Abdu'l-Bahá. The group was relatively young containing mainly women from high American society in their 20s. The group of Westerners aroused suspicion for the authorities, and consequently `Abdu'l-Bahá’s confinement was tightened. During the next decade `Abdu'l-Bahá would be in constant communication with Bahá'ís around the world, helping them to teach the religion; the group included May Ellis Bolles in Paris, Englishman Thomas Breakwell, American Herbert Hopper, French Hippolyte Dreyfus, Susan Moody, Lua Getsinger, and American Laura Clifford Barney. It was Laura Clifford Barney who, by asking questions of `Abdu'l-Bahá over many years and many visits to Haifa, compiled what later became the book Some Answered Questions.
During the final years of the 19th century, while `Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner and confined to `Akka, he organized the transfer of the remains of the Báb from Iran to Palestine. He then organized the purchase of land on Mount Carmel that Bahá'u'lláh had instructed should be used to lay the remains of the Báb, and organized for the construction of the Shrine of the Báb. This process took another 10 years. With the increase of pilgrims visiting `Abdu'l-Bahá, Muhammad `Alí worked with the Ottoman authorities to re-introduce stricter terms on `Abdu'l-Bahá's imprisonment in August 1901. By 1902, however, due to the Governor of `Akka being supportive of `Abdu'l-Bahá, the situation was greatly eased; while pilgrims were able to once again visit `Abdu'l-Bahá, he was confined to the city. In February 1903, two followers of Muhammad `Alí, including Badi'u'llah and Siyyid `Aliy-i-Afnan, broke with Muhammad `Ali and wrote books and letters giving details of Muhammad `Ali's plots and noting that what was circulating about `Abdu'l-Bahá was fabrication.
From 1902 to 1904, in addition to the building of the Shrine of the Báb that `Abdu'l-Bahá was directing, he started to put into execution two different projects; the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shiraz, Iran and the construction of the first Bahá'í House of Worship in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. `Abdu'l-Bahá asked Aqa Mirza Aqa to coordinate the work so that the house of the Báb would be restored to the state that it was at the time of the Báb's declaration to Mulla Husayn in 1844; he also entrusted the work on the House of Worship to Vakil-u'd-Dawlih.
Also in 1904, Muhammad `Ali continued his accusations against `Abdu'l-Bahá which caused an Ottoman commission summoning `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against him. During the inquiry the charges against him were dropped and the inquiry collapsed. The next few years in `Akka were relatively free of pressures and pilgrims were able to come and visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. By 1909 the mausoleum of the Shrine of the Báb was completed.
Journeys to the West
The 1908 Young Turks revolution freed all political prisoners in the Ottoman Empire, and `Abdu'l-Bahá was freed from imprisonment. His first action after his freedom was to visit the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Bahji. While `Abdu'l-Bahá continued to live in `Akka immediately following the revolution, he soon moved to live in Haifa near the Shrine of the Báb. In 1910, with the freedom to leave the country, he embarked on a three-year journey to Egypt, Europe, and North America, spreading the Bahá'í message.
From August to December 1911, `Abdu'l-Bahá visited cities in Europe, including London, Bristol, and Paris. The purpose of these trips was to support the Bahá'í communities in the west and to further spread his father's teachings.
In the following year, he undertook a much more extensive journey to the United States and Canada to once again spread his father's teachings. He arrived in New York City on 11 April 1912, after declining an offer of passage on the RMS Titanic, telling the Bahá'í believers, instead, to "Donate this to charity." He instead travelled on a slower craft, the S.S. Cedric, and cited preference of a longer sea journey as the reason. Upon arriving in New York, he arranged a private meeting with the survivors of the ill-fated Titanic, who asked him if he knew the Titanic's ultimate destruction would occur, to which, 'Abdu'l-Baha replied, "God gives man feelings of intuition". While he spent most of his time in New York, he visited Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., Boston and Philadelphia. In August of the same year he started a more extensive journey to places including New Hampshire, the Green Acre school in Maine, and Montreal (his only visit to Canada). He then travelled west to Minneapolis, San Francisco, Stanford, and Los Angeles before starting to return east at the end of October. On 5 December 1912 he set sail back to Europe.
During his visit to North America he visited many missions, churches, and groups, as well as having scores of meetings in Bahá'ís' homes, and offering innumerable personal meetings with hundreds of people. During his talks he proclaimed Bahá'í principles such as the unity of God, unity of the religions, oneness of humanity, equality of women and men, world peace and economic justice. He also insisted that all his meetings be open to all races.
His visit and talks were the subject of hundreds of newspaper articles. In Boston newspaper reporters asked `Abdu'l-Bahá why he had come to America, and he stated that he had come to participate in conferences on peace and that just giving warning messages is not enough. `Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Montreal provided notable newspaper coverage; on the night of his arrival the editor of the Montreal Daily Star met with him and that newspaper along with The Montreal Gazette, Montreal Standard, Le Devoir and La Presse among others reported on `Abdu'l-Bahá's activities. The headlines in those papers included "Persian Teacher to Preach Peace", "Racialism Wrong, Says Eastern Sage, Strife and War Caused by Religious and National Prejudices", and "Apostle of Peace Meets Socialists, Abdul Baha's Novel Scheme for Distribution of Surplus Wealth." The Montreal Standard, which was distributed across Canada, took so much interest that it republished the articles a week later; the Gazette published six articles and Montreal's largest French language newspaper published two articles about him. His 1912 visit to Montreal also inspired humourist Stephen Leacock to parody him in his bestselling 1914 book Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich. In Chicago one newspaper headline included "His Holiness Visits Us, Not Pius X but A. Baha," and `Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to California was reported in the Palo Altan.
Back in Europe, he visited London, Paris (where he stayed for two months), Stuttgart, Budapest, and Vienna. Finally on 12 June 1913 he returned to Egypt, where he stayed for six months before returning to Haifa.
During World War I `Abdu'l-Bahá stayed in Palestine, under the continued threat of Allied bombardment and threats from the Turkish commander. As the war ended, the British Mandate over Palestine brought relative security to `Abdu'l-Bahá. During his final year, a growing number of visitors and pilgrims came to see him in Haifa.
On 27 April 1920, he was awarded a knighthood (KBE) by the British Mandate of Palestine for his humanitarian efforts during the war. `Abdu'l-Bahá died on 28 November 1921 (27th of Rabi'u'l-Avval, 1340 AH.) On his funeral, Esslemont notes:
- "... a funeral the like of which Haifa, nay Palestine itself, had surely never seen... so deep was the feeling that brought so many thousands of mourners together, representative of so many religions, races and tongues".
He is buried in the front room of the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. Plans are in place to one day build a Shrine of `Abdu'l-Bahá. In his Will and Testament he appointed his grandson Shoghi Effendi Rabbani as the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith.
The total estimated number of tablets that `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote are over 27,000, of which only a fraction have been translated into English. His works fall into two groups including first his direct writings and second his lectures and speeches as noted by others. The first group includes The Secret of Divine Civilization written before 1875, A Traveller's Narrative written around 1886, the Resāla-ye sīāsīya or Sermon on the Art of Governance written in 1893, the Memorials of the Faithful, and a large number of tablets written to various people; including various Western intellectuals such as August Forel which has been translated and published as the Tablet to Auguste-Henri Forel. The Secret of Divine Civilization and the Sermon on the Art of Governance were widely circulated anonymously.
The second group includes Some Answered Questions, which is an English translation of a series of table talks with Laura Barney, and Paris Talks, `Abdu'l-Baha in London and Promulgation of Universal Peace which are respectively addresses given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, London and the United States.
The following is a list of some of `Abdu'l-Bahá's many books, tablets, and talks:
- Foundations of World Unity
- Memorials of the Faithful
- Paris Talks
- Secret of Divine Civilization
- Some Answered Questions
- Tablets of the Divine Plan
- Tablet to Auguste-Henri Forel
- Tablet to The Hague
- Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá
- Promulgation of Universal Peace
- Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá
- Divine Philosophy
- Treatise on Politics / Sermon on the Art of Governance
- Bahá'u'lláh's family
- Mírzá Mihdí
- Ásíyih Khánum
- Bahiyyih Khánum
- Munirih Khánum
- Shoghi Effendi
- House of `Abdu'l-Bahá
- Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 2
- Bausani, Alessandro (1989), Encyclopædia Iranica http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v1f1/v1f1a064.html
|url=missing title (help).
- Smith 2000, pp. 14–20
- Muhammad Qazvini (1949). "`Abdu'l-Bahá Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians". Retrieved 5 September 2007.
- Esslemont 1980
- Kazemzadeh 2009
- Blomfield 1975, p. 21
- Blomfield 1975, p. 40
- Blomfield 1975, p. 39
- Taherzadeh, p.105
- Blomfield, p.68
- Hogenson 2010, p. 40
- Browne 1891, p. xxxvi
- Hogenson, p.81
- Balyuzi, p.12
- Hogenson, p.82
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 12
- Chronology of persecutions of Babis and Baha'is compiled by Jonah Winters
- Blomfield 1975, p. 54
- Blomfield 1975, p. 69
- The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, volume two, page 391
- Can women act as agents of a democratization of theocracy in Iran? by Homa Hoodfar, Shadi Sadr, page 9
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 14
- Phelps 1912, pp. 27–55
- Smith 2008, p. 17
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 15
- "'Abdu'l-Baha's Commentary on The Islamic Tradition: "I Was a Hidden Treasure ..."". Baha'i Studies Bulletin 3:4 (Dec. 1985), 4–35. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- Declaration of Baha'u'llah
- The history and significance of the Bahá'í festival of Ridván BBC
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 17
- "Tablet of the Branch". Wilmette: Baha'i Publishing Trust. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- "The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh". US Bahá’í Publishing Trust. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- "The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh". Baha'i Studies Bulletin 3:4 (Dec. 1985), 4–35. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- Gail 1987, p. 281[citation not found]
- Foltz 2004, pp. 151
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 33–43
- Phelps 1912, pp. 3
- Smith 2000, pp. 4
- A Traveller's Narrative, (Makála-i-Shakhsí Sayyáh)
- `Abdu'l-Bahá (1891), Browne, E.G. (Tr.), ed., A Traveller's Narrative: Written to illustrate the episode of the Bab, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. (See Browne's "Introduction" and "Notes", esp. "Note W".)
- Hogenson, p.87
- Ma'ani 2008, p. 112
- Smith 2000, p. 255
- Phelps 1912, pp. 85–94
- Smith 2008, p. 35
- Ma'ani 2008, p. 323
- Ma'ani 2008, p. 360
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 53
- Browne 1918, p. 145
- Browne 1918, p. 77
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 60
- Abdul-Baha. "Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas".
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 69
- Hogenson, p.x
- Hogenson, p.308
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 72–96
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 82
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 90–93
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 94–95
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 102
- Afroukhteh 2003, p. 166
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 107
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 109
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 111–113
- Momen 1981, pp. 320–323
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 131
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 159–397
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 171
- Gallagher & Ashcraft 2006, p. 196
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 232
- Van den Hoonaard 1996, pp. 56–58
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 256
- Wagner, Ralph D. Yahi-Bahi Society of Mrs. Resselyer-Brown, The. Accessed on: 19 May 2008
- Balyuzi 2001, p. 313
- Balyuzi 2001, pp. 400–431
- Esslemont 1980, p. 77, quoting 'The Passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá", by Lady Blomfield and Shoghi Effendi, pp 11, 12.
- Universal House of Justice (September 2002). "Numbers and Classifications of Sacred Writings texts". Retrieved 20 March 2007.
- Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Texts Vol. 7, no. 1 (March, 2003)
- Afroukhteh, Youness (2003) , Memories of Nine Years in 'Akká, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-477-8
- Balyuzi, H.M. (2001), `Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh (Paperback ed.), Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-043-8
- Blomfield, Lady (1975) , The Chosen Highway, London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 0-87743-015-2
- Browne, E.G. (1918), Materials for the Study of the Bábí Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Esslemont, J.E. (1980), Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.), Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 0-87743-160-4
- Foltz, Richard. C (2004), Spirituality in the Land of the Noble: How Iran Shaped the World's Religions, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 1-85168-336-4
- Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006), New and Alternative Religions in America, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98712-4
- Kazemzadeh, Firuz (2009), "‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás (1844–1921)", Bahá’í Encyclopedia Project (Evanston, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States).
- Momen, M. (editor) (1981), The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 1844–1944 – Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-102-7
- Phelps, Myron Henry (1912), Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi, New York: Putnam, ISBN 978-1-890688-15-8
- Van den Hoonaard, Willy Carl (1996), The origins of the Bahá'í community of Canada, 1898–1948, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, ISBN 0-88920-272-9
- Smith, Peter (2000), "`Abdu'l-Bahá" (PDF), A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith (Oxford: Oneworld Publications), ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Hogenson, Kathryn J. (2010), Lighting the Western Sky: The Hearst Pilgrimage & Establishment of the Baha'i Faith in the West, George Ronald, ISBN 978-0-85398-543-3
- Ma'ani, Baharieh Rouhani (2008), Leaves of the Twin Divine Trees, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-533-2
- Browne, E.G. (1891), A Traveller's Narrative, Cambridge
- Effendi, Shoghi (1944), God Passes By, Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 0-87743-020-9
- Smith, Peter (2008), An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6, ISBN 0-521-86251-5
- Zarqáni, Mírzá Mahmúd-i- (1998) , Mahmúd's Diary: Chronicling `Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey to America, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-418-2
- Mcglinn, Sen (22 April 2011). "Abdu’l-Baha’s British knighthood". Sen McGlinn's Blog. Retrieved 26 April 2011. (also relevant to Abdu'l-Baha's business interests and income).
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