Ágnes Heller (2010)
|Born||12 May 1929
|Main interests||Political theory|
Ágnes Heller (born 12 May 1929) is a Hungarian philosopher. A prominent Marxist thinker at first, she moved onto a liberal, social-democratic position later in her career. In addition to political and social thought, she also concentrates on Hegelian philosophy, ethics, and existentialism.
Early life and political development 
Ágnes Heller was raised in a middle-class Jewish family, and her father, Pal Heller, was never able to stay with a single job for very long. During World War II however, he used his legal training and knowledge of German to help people get together the necessary paperwork to emigrate from Nazi Europe. In 1944, Heller’s father was deported, along with 450,000 other Hungarian Jews, to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he died before the war ended. Heller and her mother managed to avoid deportation as a result of luck and practical wit.
With regard to the influence of the Holocaust on her work, Heller said:
- I was always interested in the question: How could this possibly happen? How can I understand this? And this experience of the holocaust was joined with my experience in the totalitarian regime. This brought up very similar questions in my soul-search and world investigation: how could this happen? How could people do things like this? So I had to find out what morality is all about, what is the nature of good and evil, what can I do about crime, what can I figure out about the sources of morality and evil? That was the first inquiry. The other inquiry was a social question: what kind of world can produce this? What kind of world allows such things to happen? What is modernity all about? Can we expect redemption?
In 1947, Heller began to study physics and chemistry at the University of Budapest. She changed her focus to philosophy, however, when her boyfriend at the time urged her to listen to the lecture of the Marxist philosopher György Lukács, on the intersections of philosophy and culture. At the time (and ever since), she did not understand the philosophical terminology. However, she was immediately taken by how much his lecture addressed her concerns and interests in how to live in the modern world, especially after the experience of World War II and the Holocaust. Faced with the existential choice between Marxism and Zionism, Heller chose Marxism and did not seek to emigrate to Israel.
1947 was also the year that Heller joined the Communist Party while at a Zionist work camp and began to develop her interest in Marxism. However, she felt that the Party was stifling the ability of its adherents to think freely due to the belief in Democratic centralism (total allegiance) to the Party. She was expelled from it for the first time in 1949, the year that Mátyás Rákosi came into power and ushered in the years of Stalinist rule. Later she became a big fan of Rákosi, she even wrote "fan letter" to her idol.
Scientific work 
Early career in Hungary 
After 1953 and the installation of Imre Nagy as Prime Minister, Heller was able to safely undertake her doctoral studies under the supervision of Lukács, and in 1955 she began to teach at the University of Budapest.
From the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 to the Prague Spring of 1968 
The 1956 Hungarian Revolution was the most important political event of her life, for at this time she saw the effect of the academic freedoms of Marxist critical theory as dangerous to the entire political and social structure of Hungary. The uprising confirmed Heller's ideas that what Marx really means is for the people to have political autonomy and collective determination of social life.
Lukács, Heller and other Marxist critical theorists emerged from the Revolution with the belief that Marxism and socialism needed to be applied to different nations in individual ways, effectively questioning the role of the Soviet Union in Hungary’s future. These ideas set Heller on an ideological collision course with the new Moscow-supported government of János Kádár: Heller was again expelled from the Communist Party and she was dismissed from the University in 1958 for refusing to indict Lukács as a collaborator in the Revolution. She was not able to resume her research until 1963, when she was invited to join the Sociological Institute at the Hungarian Academy as a researcher (Tormey 4–18) (Grumley 5–15).
From 1963 can be seen the emergence of what would later be called the “Budapest School”, a philosophical forum that was formed by Lukács to promote the renewal of Marxist criticism in the face of practiced and theoretical socialism. Other participants in the Budapest School included together with Heller her second husband Ferenc Fehér, György Márkus, Mihály Vajda and some other scholars with the looser connection to the school (such as András Hegedüs, István Eörsi, János Kis and György Bence). The School emphasized the idea of the renaissance of Marxism, described by radical philosophy scholar Simon Tormey as "a flowering of the critical, oppositional potential they believed lay within Marxism and in particular within the ‘early Marx’ ... the Marxism of the individual ‘rich in needs,' of solidarity and self-governance ... they hoped to precipitate a crisis in those systems that had the temerity to call themselves 'socialist'."
Heller's work from this period, subsequently repudiated, concentrates on themes such as what Marx means to the character of modern societies; liberation theory as applied to the individual; the work of changing society and government from “the bottom up,” and affecting change through the level of the values, beliefs and customs of "everyday life". Since 1990, Heller has been more interested in the issues of aesthetics in The Concept of The Beautiful (1998), Time Is Out of Joint (2002), and Immortal Comedy (2005).
Career in Hungary after the Prague Spring 
Until the events of the 1968 Prague Spring, the Budapest School remained supportive of reformist attitudes towards socialism. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact forces and the crushing of dissent, however, the School and Heller came to believe that the Eastern European regimes were entirely corrupted and that reformist theory was apologist. Heller explains in her interview with Polony that:
- the regime just could not tolerate any other opinion; that is what a totalitarian regime is. But a totalitarian regime cannot totalize entirely, it cannot dismiss pluralism; pluralism exists in the modern world, but it can outlaw pluralism. To outlaw pluralism means that the Party decided which kind of dissenting opinion was allowed. That is, you could not write something without it being allowed by the Party. But we had started to write and think independently and that was such a tremendous challenge against the way the whole system worked. They could not possibly tolerate not playing by the rules of the game. And we did not play by the rules of the game.
This view was completely incompatible with Kadar’s view of Hungary’s political future after the Revolution of 1956. According to her latest interview in Junge Welt, she thinks, that political and criminal processes after 1956 were antisemitic.
After Lukács’ death in 1971, the School’s members became victims of political persecution, were made unemployed through their dismissal from their university jobs, and were subjected to official surveillance and general harassment. Rather than remain a dissident, Heller and her husband the philosopher Ferenc Fehér, along with many other members of the core group of the School, chose exile in Australia in 1977.
Career abroad 
Heller and Fehér encountered what they regarded as the sterility of local culture and lived in relative suburban obscurity close to La Trobe University in Melbourne, and they assisted in the transformation of Thesis Eleven from a labourist journal to a leading Australian journal of social theory before its subsequent conversion to "American civilization" (Tormey 4–18)(Grumley 5–15).
As described by Tormey, Heller’s mature thought during this time period is based on the tenets that can be attributed to her personal history and experience as a member of the Budapest School, focusing on the stress on the individual as agent; the hostility to the justification of the state of affairs by reference to non-moral or non-ethical criteria; the belief in "human substance" as the origin of everything that is good or worthwhile; and the hostility to forms of theorizing and political practice that deny equality, rationality and self-determination in the name of "our" interests and needs, however defined.
Heller and Fehér left Australia in 1986 to take up positions in The New School in New York City, where Heller currently holds the position of Hannah Arendt Professor of Philosophy in the Graduate Studies Program. Her philosophy continued its neo-liberal postmodernisation which began with its repudiation of Marxism for a functionalist and market-based theory of society and ended with a conversion to a kind of neoconservatism under the influence of the events of 9-11. Her contribution to the field of philosophy has been recognized by the many awards that she has received (such as the Hannah Arendt Prize for Political Philosophy, Bremen, 1995) and the Szechenyi National Prize in Hungary, 1995) and the various academic societies that she serves on, including the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 2007 she visited China for a week for the first time.
In 2010, Heller, with 26 other well known and successful Hungarian women, joined the campaign for a referendum for a female quota in the Hungarian legislature.
Heller continues to publish internationally renowned works, including republications of her previous works in English, all of which are internationally revered by scholars such as Lydia Goehr (on Heller's The Concept of the Beautiful), Richard Wolin (on Heller's recent republication of A Theory of Feelings), Dmitri Nikulin (on comedy and ethics), John Grumley (whose own work focuses on Heller in Agnes Heller: A Moralist in the Vortex of History), John Rundell (on Heller's aesthetics and theory of modernity), Preben Kaarsholm (on Heller's A Short History of My Philosophy), among others.
Heller is now Professor Emeritus at the New School for Social Research in New York.  She continues to work actively both academically and politically around the globe. Recently she has spoken at the Imre Kertesz College in Jena, Germany together with Polish sociologist, Zygmunt Bauman , at the Tübingen Book Fair in Germany speaking together with Former German Justice Minister, Herta Däubler-Gmelin, , and other venues worldwide.
Political controversy 
Political sympathies and antipathies 
After the publication of the lie speech of Ferenc Gyurcsány (MSZP-Hungarian Socialist Party) in 2006, she took a position in defense of the MSZP, and especially of Gyurcsány's movement, the Demokratikus Charta -Democratic Charta, in which she sees the only cure for Hungarian antisemitism. During a European Parliament session, she denied that during the civic manifestations to force the resignation of Gyurcsány there had been atrocities against the protesters by the Hungarian police forces. Heller said "no one was shot, no one was tortured, show me a fact" The source of the controversy over this statement was partly due to the fact that Hungarian demonstrators were shot with rubber bullets, some in the eye with permanent injuries, and the police broke fingers, arms and legs not only on peaceful demonstrators, but also on innocent bystanders. Some of the liberal press in Hungary claimed that this makes the original statement false. Heller herself states that she thinks that the shot verb in the question of the MP could be translated as shot down (i.e., killed) and not shot at in Hungarian, and that is why she said, what she said. The statements resulted in hate messages on Heller's answering machine, according to Heller's statement;including that she "should have rotted in her mother's womb". Heller described these calls as a hate campaign; stating on Hungarian public television that she "didn't have any idea why".
Public funds 
Heller was under police investigation in connection with alleged financial fraud (four counts) in the Philosophy Department of the Academy of Hungarian Sciences. Government "accountability commissioner", Gyula Budai, claimed that she was responsible for misusing public funds.
In May 2012, the Budapest Police Headquarters (BRFK) ended all four investigations "for lack of crime".
Some of the Hungarian media published allegations of misuse of research funds by Heller and other liberal philosophers (Gábor Borbély, Kornél Steiger, Mihály Vajda, Sándor Radnóti, and János Weiss) These researchers were the PI's of peer-reviewed grants—total value 450 million HUF (USD 2.5 million) — funded during the tenure of the Ferenc Gyurcsány government, including liberal Alliance of Free Democrats minister, Bálint Magyar.
Heller responded that all the accusations were false and a worrisome symptom of a drift toward authoritarianism and antisemitism in contemporary Hungary. The left, liberal and international media saw the media-accusations as part of a systematic government harassment campaign against its critics.
The only allegations of the right wing media that have since been tested in court—in the form of lawsuits against the press for false statements and accusations—have been decided in Heller's (and the other accused philosophers') favor.
Numerous European and international scholars have come out in a significant public show of support for Heller and other academics recently under attack in Hungary, and have expressed grave concern for the harassment taking place there against academics.    Jürgen Habermas and Julian Nida-Rümelin have published a letter of "Outcry" [Aufruf] in the Süddeutsche Zeitung in Germany against what they saw of the harassment against Heller and similar liberal academics in Hungary. This letter was widely circulated and translated into English online. .
In May 2012, the Budapest Police Headquarters (BRFK) ended the investigation "for lack of crime".
Early political activity in Hungary 
The right wing daily, Magyar Hírlap, published a letter, allegedly written by Heller and sent to the MSZMP in 1959, begging her reemployment at the university. It includes passages like "As a communist and member of MSZMP I feel it is my duty" and describes the 1956 Revolution in Hungary as a counter-revolution. The letter was deemed authentic by historian Fráter Olivér. Heller claims that her first husband, István Hermann, fabricated the quoted parts of the texts.
Others in Hungary criticize the republishing of her early works. In the new editions, they claim she simply cut out citations from Marx, Lenin, Makarenko and other communist ideologists as well as parts criticizing non-Marxist thinkers and writers. According to one of her infamous statements, Dezső Kosztolányi was moral nihilist (nihilism being the main characteristic of fascism). She argues that Kosztolányi defined himself as a homo aestethicus, who is opposed to the homo moralis. In Kosztolányi's understanding a homo moralis is narrow-minded, focusing only on things he/she regards valuable. A homo moralis is cruel to everyone, starts wars, hangs people, offers Paradise in the future, but turns the Earth into hell. According to Heller, the homo aestethicus is unacceptable and cannot be tolerated. She wrote that the socialist morality must be present in the works and in the life of an artist at a very high level. Heller's other argument for Kosztolányi's nihilism was that he first had been a supporter of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, but later became a journalist of the right-wing Hungarian newspaper Új Nemzedék.
Awards, honors (selection) 
- Lessing Award, Hamburg (1981)
- Hannah Arendt professor of Philosophy, Bremen, (1994)
- Széchenyi Award (1995) – Tudományos munkássága elismeréseként.
- Doctor honoris causa, Melbourne, (1996)
- Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (Civilian), Grand Cross - Star] (2004)
- European Parliament Italian Section Award (2004)
- Pro Scientia Golden Medal (2005)
- Sonning Award (2006)
- Hermann Cohen Award (2007)
- Vig Mónika Award (2007)
- Mazsike Várhegyi György Award (2007)
- Freeman of Budapest (2008)
- Goethe-Medal (2010)
- Hungarian Socialist Party Medal for public activity (2011)
- The Marxist Theory of Revolution and the Revolution in Everyday Life (TELOS Fall 1970)
- On the New Adventures of the Dialectic (TELOS Spring 1977)
- Forms of Equality (TELOS Sumer 1977)
- Comedy and Rationality (TELOS Fall 1980)
- The Antinomies of Peace (TELOS Fall 1982)
- From Red to Green (TELOS Spring 1984)
- Lukacs and the Holy Family (TELOS Winter 1984-5)
- A mai történelmi regény, (The Historical Novel Today, in Hungarian) Budapest, Múlt és Jövő Kiadó, 2011.
- The insolubility of the "Jewish question", or Why was I born Hebrew, and why not negro? Budapest, Múlt és Jövő Kiadó, 2004.
- Beyond Justice, Oxford, Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1988.
- Can Modernity Survive?, Cambridge, Berkeley, Los Angeles: Polity Press and University of California Press, 1990.
- Dictatorship Over Needs (with F. Fehér and G. Markus). Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983.
- Doomsday or Deterrence (with F. Fehér). White Plains: M. E. Sharpe, 1986
- Eastern Left – Western Left (Freedom, Totalitarianism, Democracy) (with F. Fehér). Cambridge, New York: Polity Press, Humanities Press, 1987.
- An Ethics of Personality, Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1996.
- From Yalta to Glasnost (The Dismantling of Stalin's Empire) (with F. Fehér). Oxford, Boston: 1990.
- General Ethics, Oxford, Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
- The Grandeur and Twilight of Radical Universalism (with F. Fehér). New Brunswick: Transaction, 1990.
- The Humanisation of Socialism (with A. Hegedus et al.), (collected papers trans. from Hungarian). London: Allison and Busby, 1976.
- Hungary, 1956 Revisited: The Message of a Revolution A Quarter of a Century After (with F. Fehér). London, Boston, Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1983.
- Immortal Comedy: The Comic Phenomenon in Art, Literature, and Life, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc, November 2005.
- Individuum and Praxis (Positionen der Budapester Schule), (collected essays trans. from Hungarian, with G. Lukács et al.). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1975.
- On Instincts (English trans. of Hungarian original). Assen: Van Gorcum, 1979.
- Lukács Revalued, editor. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983 (paperback, 1984).
- A Philosophy of Morals, Oxford, Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1990.
- The Postmodern Political Condition (with F. Fehér), Cambridge, New York: Polity Press Columbia University Press, 1989.
- The Power of Shame (A Rationalist Perspective), London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
- Reconstructing Aesthetics, editor with F. Fehér. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
- Renaissance Man (English trans. of Hungarian original). London, Boston, Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978.
- A Theory of Modernity, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge MA, 1999.
- The Theory of Need in Marx, London: Allison and Busby, 1976.
- The Time is Out of Joint: Shakespeare as Philosopher of History, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge MA, 2000.
- Towards a Marxist Theory of Value, Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois, Telos Books, 1972.
See also 
- Interview with Csaba Polony, Left Curve Journal
- 'We lived in community, we felt we belonged together. We needed neither money nor the rich ... I didn't like the rich, today I am ashamed of it. I abominated the black market dealers, the dollar speculators, the men of rapacity and greed. No problem! I'd stay loyal for ever to the poor. So, crazy chick that I was, I joined the Communist party to be with the poor'. Cited Eric Hobsbawm, Interesting Times,,2002 p.137
- Női kvóta: népszavazással és meztelen férfiakkal próbálkoznak, Népszabadság, 5 November 2010.
- Heller's original statements audible
- FILOZÓFUSPÁLYÁZATOK: ÚJABB FELJELENTÉST TETT BUDAI GYULA, Magyar Hírlap
- Accusations flying, Budapest Times
- Milliókért fordítottak magyarról magyarra "Hungarian writings [by Plato!] translated from Hungarian into Hungarian for millions of forints", Magyar Nemzet, January 15, 2011
- Félmilliárdot „kutattak el” Hellerék "Half billion forints "researched away" by the Heller gang"
- "Hungarian Academicians Blast Government Over Inquiry Into Research Funds", American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ScienceInsider, 4 February 2011.
- "HUNGARY: Outcry over probe into philosophers", University World News, 20 February 2011
- "Hungarian Academicians Blast Government Over Inquiry Into Research Funds" American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ScienceInsider, 4 February 2011.
- "Hagyják abba a filozófusok rágalmazását!" ("End the Smear Campaign Against the Philosophers")
- Heller helyeselte a véres megtorlást
- Eredetinek tűnik a Heller-levél
- R. J. Crampton Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century-And Beyond. Second Edition. London: Routledge, 1994.
- Ferenc Fehér and Agnes Heller (1983) Hungary 1956 Revisited: The Message of a revolution- a Quarter of a Century After, London, UK: George Allen and Unwin Publishers Ltd
- John Grumley (2005) Ágnes Heller: A Moralist in the Vortex of History, London, UK: Pluto Press
- Curriculum vitae of Ágnes Heller 
- Agnes Heller (2000) The Frankfurt School, 2 December 2005 
- Csaba Polony Interview with Ágnes Heller 
- Simon Tormey (2001) Ágnes Heller: Socialism, Autonomy and the Postmodern, Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press
- Fu Qilin, "Budapest School Aesthetics: An Interview with Agnes Heller", Thesis Eleven,2008,V0l.1.num.94.
- Agnes Heller, "Preface to A Study of Agnes Heller's thoughts about Aesthetic Modernity by Fu Qilin", Compatarative Literature, 2006,vol.8, num.1
- Collegium Budapest 
- Interview with Ágnes Heller: Post Marxism and the Ethics of Modernity, A Brief History of Radical Philosophy 2005. 2 December 2005 
- Heller, Ágnes. The Three Logics of Modernity and the Double Bind of the Modern Imagination, Collegium Budapest, 2 December 2005.  (.pdf file)
- Rick Kuhn, Marxism Overview, 24 August 2004, 2 December 2005. 
- Mikko Mäntysaari, Ágnes Heller, 2 December 2005 
- Liam McNamara, Michael E. Gardiner (2000) Critiques of Everyday Life, New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11314-8. 2 December 2005. 
- Simon Tormey Interviews with Agnes Heller (1998)” 1 February 2004. 2 December 2005. 
- Agnes Heller at University of Milan, Italy, 7 May 2008. 
- Interview with Agnes Heller, "On Ethics of Personality", by Andrea Vestrucci, in Secretum 16-2008 
- Beyond justice
- Interview with Ágnes Heller