The main railroad station in Águeda, during late evening
|Official name: Concelho de Águeda|
|Civil Parishes||Agadão, Aguada de Baixo, Aguada de Cima, Agueda, Barrô, Belazaima do Chão, Borralha, Castanheira do Vouga, Espinhel, Fermentelos, Lamas do Vouga, Macieira de Alcoba, Macinhata do Vouga, Óis da Ribeira, Préstimo, Recardães, Segadães, Travassô, Trofa, Valongo do Vouga|
|Rivers||Águeda, Certoma, Vouga|
|- elevation||28 m (92 ft)|
|Length||27.12 km (17 mi), Southwest-Northeast|
|Width||26.5 km (16 mi), Northeast-Southwest|
|Area||335.28 km2 (129 sq mi)|
|Density||149 / km2 (386 / sq mi)|
|- Municipality||31 December 1853|
|- City||8 July 1985|
|- location||Praça do Município, Águeda, Águeda|
|Mayor||Gil Nadais Resende da Fonseca (PS)|
|President of the Municipal Assembly||Francisco Manuel Guedes Vitorino (PS)|
|- summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|ISO 3166-2 code||PT-|
|Postal Zone||3754-500 Águeda|
|Area Code & Prefix||(+351) 234 XXX-XXXX|
|Patron Saint||Santa Eulália|
|Municipal Address||Praça do Município
|Municipal Holidays||Whitsun; 8th Monday after Easter Sunday|
Location of the municipality of Águeda in Portugal
|Wikimedia Commons: Águeda|
|Statistics from INE (2001); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)|
Águeda (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈaɡɨdɐ] ( )) is a city and a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 335.3 square kilometres (129.5 square miles) with a total population of 49,456 inhabitants (41,022 electors in 2006). The main city proper has a population of 14,504, while the remainder is distributed in 20 parishes, within the Baixo Vouga Subregion.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Architecture
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sport
- 7 Notable citizens
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Ancient occupation of this area was marked by diverse megalithic monuments, including the archeological site at Cabeço de Vouga, an important Roman military fortification along routes from Olissipo (Lisbon) to Bracara.
In the 9th Century, Águeda was a prosperous burg, with stable commerce and an active port that supported local and regional businesses. It was mentioned in documents from 1050 to 1077, by its primitive name Casal Lousado (Lat. Casal Lousato), or by its anglicized forms: Anegia, Agatha and Ágada; by the 9th Century, this settlement was referred to as Ágata. In a document dated 1050, there is mention of several villages situated within the current borders, many with names originating from Arab languages.
Águeda was an ancillary center on the roads to Santiago, and the river-side village was most certainly visited by Queen Isabel in 1325, during her customary pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela.
A new phase of settlement occurred after the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, after the 11th-12th century: although its inhabitants prospered, and had many privileges, their representatives from Aveiro in the Cortes of Évora (1451), never issued a foral declaration. King D. Manuel I included Águeda in the foral granted to Aveiro, in 1515, and only later provided a separate charter by the King.
In 1834, Águeda ascended to the category of municipal seat, as a consequence of the Liberal Revolution, when major administrative reforms were initiated. Its important political place and strategic politico-military position, allowed Águeda to support military troops during the Second French Invasion, when it functioned as military hospital. The municipality of Águeda, was established on 31 December 1853, and integrated many older concelhos of medieval origins long since extinct, including Aguada de Cima, Castanheira do Vouga and Préstimo.
On July 8, 1985, Águeda was elevated to the category of city. Águeda, as a frontier between the sea and land was situated in a privileged position, serviced by railroads and expanding road networks. These advancements, allowed the economic and social development of the region, and placed Águeda in an important position.
Águeda is integrated into the antique District of Aveiro, in the Region of Beira Litoral. It is situated in the hydrographic basin of the Vouga River, limited in the north by the Águeda River, south by the Cértima River, to the east by the Serra do Caramulo, and to the west by the Pateira de Fermentelos, placing it in a central location (the transition of the Beira Litoral and interior regions). In addition to the mentioned rivers, the area is also delimited by the River Marnel, and the tributaries of the Águeda River: the River Alfusqueiro, Agadão and Dornes ravine.
- Pateira de Fermentelos, shortened to Pateira is a natural lake, localized within the triangle of the municipalities of Águeda, Aveiro and Oliveira do Bairro before the confluence of the Cértima and Águeda Rivers. It is the second largest lake in the Iberian peninsula, rich in diverse species of animal, bird, fish and aquatic plants.
Águeda is located 240 kilometres (149 miles) from Lisbon, 72 kilometres (45 miles) from Oporto and 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Aveiro.
The municipality includes 20 civil parishes, that handle local-level administrative tasks, that include provision of municipal and social services. These parishes, include:
- Agadão - a small parish with less than 500 inhabitants, known regionally for the water-bottling business in the village of Alcafaz;
- Aguada de Baixo
- Aguada de Cima
- Belazaima do Chão
- Castanheira do Vouga
- Fermentelos - a parish with a northern border on the Pateira de Fermentelos, with over 3000 inhabitants;
- Lamas do Vouga
- Macieira de Alcoba
- Macinhata do Vouga
- Óis da Ribeira
- Valongo do Vouga
Between 1991 and 2001, the population resident in Águeda increased 11.3%; these were primarily in parishes of Segadães (32.9%), Aguada de Cima (32.8%) and Recardães (20.8%), while there was a 32.9% decrease in the population. Population density increased in the parishes of Águeda, Recardães, Aguada de Baixo, Ferementelos and Trofa, while parishes closer to the interior (such as Agadão, Préstimo, Castanheira do Vouga and Macieira de Alcoba) were less concentrated.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Águeda is twinned with:
- Rio Grande, Brasil (since 16 November 1993)
- Bissau, Guiné-Bissau (since 10 March 1995)
- Ferrol, Spain (since 26 August 1999)
- Sint-Gillis-Waas, Belgium (since 25 August 2000)
Águeda is an important commercial and industrial center, localized in an area that is extremely fertile; the primary sectors of note: corn harvests, fruit orchards, vineyards and forest products. The region known as the Bairrada, which encompasses many of the local civil parishes, is well known for its vineyards and wine industry, as well as its suckling pig.
It has developed a strong industrial base that includes factories that produce motorized and common bicycles and several companies concentrating on civil construction. In 2001, 60% of the resident population was employed in the secondary sector, yet between 1991-2001 there has been a 53% increase in those employed in tertiary sector, while there has been a 78.4% decrease in secondary sector throughout the municipality.
- Estação arqueológica do Cabeço do Vouga (English: Archeological Site of Cabeço do Vouga) - also referred by the Roman Castelium Marnelis, is an archeological excavation of an early Roman civitates in the foothills of the Vouga River (Cabeço da Mina, Cabeço Redonda and Cabeço do Vouga in Lamas da Vouga).
- Convento do Santo António (English: Convent of Saint Anthony) located in Serém, its construction began in 1634 by Diogo Soares, the Count/Duke of Olivares, to house a dozen Franciscans from the province of Santo Santónio. On April 16, 1635, the first stone was placed, whose construction lasted until December 1640, at the Count's expense. Construction continued in 1641, and lasted until 1658-59, briefly interrupted by the lack of funds, which originally stopped the addition of a clauster, chorus and some offices of the monastery. With the abolition of the religious orders in 1834, the convent passed into the hands of José Henriques Ferreira, then Augusto Gomes, who improved some of the installations.
- Convento de Santa Maria de Lamas (English: Convent of Santa Maria de Lamas), was constructed (in 957) in the area of Passal, by Enderquina Pala, who later dedicated it to the Santissimo Salvador of Viseu, and donated it in 961 to the monastery of Lorvão. During the 17th Century, it was remodeled, to include a commemorative wall, which has since been moved to the parochial church of Lamas do Vouga. In the 18th Century, the convent's church was already in an advance state of degradation, resulting in the construction of a new church in the community of Lamas. The only remnants of original convent and church is a non-descriptive niche in the site in Passal.
Among its traditional artesan products, the region is recognized for its traditional clay pottery, handmade baskets, knitten craftworks, tannery products.
Suckling pig, in the style of Bairrada is the most significant contribution to gastronomy in the region, although sweets are not far behind: pastas de Águeda (English: custard), barriga de freira, fuzis and sequilhos, in addition to the padas da Veiga. Other common dishes in this region: chanfana, rojões, carne à lampantana or caldeirda de peixe (English: fish stew), all great meals that are accompanied by local wines and sparkling drinks from the cellars of the Bairrada region.
The municipality promotes many sport-related activities in the communities of Águeda, in order to foster participation and improve healthy living throughout its 20 civil parishes. These initiatives include: a program for older residents (60 or over), support for many athletic clubs and leagues within its borders, and the maintenance and operation of a municipal pool for local residents.
- Associação Atlética Macinhatense
- Associação Desportiva Valonguense
- Associação Recreativa e Cultural Borralha - BARC
- Desportivo Alético de Recardães - DAR
- Ginásio Clube de Águeda - GICA
- Liga dos Amigos de Aguada de Cima - LAAC
- Recreio Desportivo de Águeda
- Sporting Clube de Fermentelos
- União Desportiva Mourisquense
- António dos Santos Baptista - from Aguada da Cima, António was awarded with a Silver Plate and road named in his honour, for his contributions to cyclism which included several regional championships, participation in the Tour de France, Vuelta a Espanã, Tour de Moroc and Vuelta a Andalucía, where he broke personal records, usually finished in the top-five.
- António Manuel Oliveira Monteiro - natural of the parish of Águeda, participated in several canoeing championships, such as the International Regatt in Ribadesella (Spain), the Milan Regatta, European Junior and Senior Championships, the Iberian Tournament and Barcelona Summer Olympics, and returned several first-place trophies.
- Hernâni Ferreira da Silva - (1 September 1931 - 5 April 2001), natural of the parish of Águeda, was a football player. Starting to play at his hometown club Recreio de Águeda, Hernâni quickly drew the attention of F.C.Porto to which he transferred in 1950. He played for the club his whole career until 1964, with the exception of the 1952-53 season in which he played (on a loan) for Estoril Praia, due to the military conscription and under the condition of not playing against F.C.Porto. He also played 28 matches for the Portugal national football team scoring 6 goals. Regarding honours, he was 2 times National Champion and won 2 Portuguese Cups. Considered as an exceptional player, he is amongst the F.C.Porto most notable players list of all times (253 apps, scoring 127 goals for the club) and was chosen by Portuguese sports newspaper Record as one of the best 100 Portuguese football players ever.
Apart from those athletes mentioned above, the municipality has been the residency of many importance citizens, including:
- Manuel Alegre de Melo Duarte (born 12 May 1936), a writer, politician and sometime candidate for the Presidency of Portugal.
- UMA POPULAÇÃO QUE SE URBANIZA, Uma avaliação recente - Cidades, 2004 Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
- Associação de Municípios da Ria (2006), p.95
- Statistics from Instituto Nacional de Estatística
- Associação de Municípios da Ria (2006), p.96
- Associação de Municípios da Ria (2006), p.97
- Ministry of Culture Article Estação arqueológica do Cabeço do Vouga
- Soares, Nuno Pires (2004). "Uma População que se Urbaniza". Atlas of Portugal (in Portuguese) (Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português).
- Associação de Municípios da Ria (ed.). Plano Municipal da Água (in Portuguese). Aveiro, Portugal: AMRIA Associação de Municípios da Ria. pp. 95–268.