École des ponts ParisTech
|École des Ponts ParisTech|
|Type||French Grande Ecole, member of ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology)|
|Director||Armel de La Bourdonnaye|
|Location||Paris, Champs-sur-Marne, France|
|Affiliations||ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology), Conférence des Grandes Ecoles, Paris School of Economics.|
École des Ponts ParisTech (originally called École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées or ENPC, or in France by its nickname Ponts) is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science, engineering and technology. Founded in 1747 as the world's first engineering school, it is one of the most prestigious and selective French Grandes Écoles.
Its historical mission was primarily to train engineering officials and senior civil engineers. The school now offers a wide-ranging education in computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, mechanics, finance, economics, innovation, urban studies, environment and transport engineering. It has a rich tradition and has educated many of France's leading engineers, scholars and experts.
The school is under the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy.
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Partnerships
- 4 Research
- 5 Alumni and faculty
- 6 Notes and references
- 7 External links
Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées. In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads, bridges and canals, and in the training of civil engineers.
The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, engineer, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students (among whom Lebon, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Pierre-Simon Girard, Riche de Prony, Méchain and Brémontier), initially taught themselves geometry, algebra, mechanics and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, which was usually four to twelve years long.
1794-1848: Growth and industrialisation
During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads (including Barré de Saint-Venant, Belgrand, Biot, Cauchy, Coriolis, Dupuit, Fresnel, Gay-Lussac, Navier, Vicat) took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, and in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects. Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, bridges, but also administrative buildings, barracks and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a historical and influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction strongly influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers. The school also gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning.
1848-1945: The big works
As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, and the control of the students’ works. For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads, bridges and canals is strongly influenced by engineers from the school (Becquerel, Bienvenüe, Caquot, Carnot, Colson, Coyne, Freyssinet, Résal, Séjourné), who deeply modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries.
After the Second World War, the school focuses on developing the link between economics and engineering. As civil engineering is requiring increasingly higher financial investments, the state needs engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From now on, the programme of the school has three different aspects: scientific and technic, social, and economic. Gradually, the number of admitted students increases in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector highly trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building, urbanism and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme. More specialisations are progressively created and the overall programme is adapted to national issues.
École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, mechanics, economics, finance, environment, transport, town & regional planning, logistics and innovation.
École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education, and quickly become top industrial managers. The school also offers specialized/research masters and PhDs. It has recently opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation.
The Ingénieur programme
This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school. It is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts - the Diplôme d'Ingénieur - is equivalent to a Master of Science (including a Bachelor of Science).
Admissions for engineering students is mostly done after scientific preparatory classes (MP, PSI, PC) through the highly selective "Mines-Ponts" competitive entrance exams. Some places are open each year to French and foreign university students as well as BCPST (biology) scientific preparatory classes
École des Ponts recruits among the top 4% of the students in preparatory classes, who represent themselves 4% of higher education students.
École des Ponts offers a wide range of master's degrees, drawing on its historical domains of expertise.
Mechanics, materials, civil engineering, nuclear engineering
- Master Nuclear Energy, dismantling and waste management
- Master Mechanics of Materials and Structures (MMS)
- Master Materials for Sustainable Construction (DARS)
- Master Mechanics of Soils, Rocks and Structures in their Environment (MSROE)
- Master Heritage Materials (MAPE)
Mathematics, financial mathematics, computer science
- Master Numerical Analysis, Partial differential equations (ANEDP)
- Master Applied Mathematics for Finance (MAF)
- Master Mathematics, Imaging & Machine Learning (MVA)
City, transports, environment
- Master Ocean, Atmosphere, Climate and Space Observations (OACOS)
- Master Management and Engineering for Environmental (UPDATED)
- Master Aquatic Systems and Water Management (SAGE)
- Master Transport and Mobility (TM)
- Master Cities, Services, Uses (PLA)
- Master Analysis and Economic Policy (APE) with the Paris School of Economics
- Master Economics of Sustainable Development, Environment and Energy (EDDEE)
- Master Project Finance - Structured Finance (FI Pro)
Advanced master's programmes
École des Ponts ParisTech’s delivers 11 Advanced Master's programmes ("Mastère Spécialisé"):
- Advanced Master in Public Policies and Actions for Sustainable Development (PAPDD)
- Advanced Master in Urban Planning and Development (AMUR)
- Advanced Master in Global Supply Chain Design and Optimisation (COSCG)
- Advanced Master in European Civil Engineering (GCE)
- Advanced Master in the Engineering of Large Energy Structures (GCGOE)
- Advanced Master in Real Estate, Building, Energy (IBE)
- Advanced Master in BIM, Integrated Design and building and infrastructures life cycle (BIM)
- Advanced Master in Integrated Urban Systems (IUS)
- Advanced Master in Railway and Urban Transport Systems
- Advanced Master in Urban Engineering and Information Technologies (UrbanTIC)
- Advanced Master in Electric Vehicle Engineering (IVE)
The laboratories of the school host many PhD students (and classical CIFRE theses) wishing to engage in research, the financing of which is done mainly through corporate chairs. There were 108 PhDs awarded in 2012 to students working in the laboratories of the School and the Ecole des Ponts was welcoming, in early 2013, about 457 PhD students in its laboratories. The Ingénieur programme students have the opportunity to complete their training with a PhD in the school's laboratories, or to prepare for it by pursuing a research Masters in these laboratories during their third year.
École des Ponts Business School
d.School at École des Ponts
As part of the Ministry of Education and Research IDEFI (Excellence Initiatives for Innovative Training) programme, the school has created the first French design school, in the spirit of Europe Living Labs. d.School at École des Ponts aims at inspiring a new generation of breakthrough innovation.
d.School at École des Ponts offers courses of innovation and design thinking, notably through the ME310 programme in partnership with Stanford University, with a strong entrepreneurial dimension.
Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests
The Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests is a technical Grand Corps of the French State (see Grands corps de l'Etat). People entering the Corps become high-ranking officials and serve the French state.
Education for the Ingénieur programme is organised in the six following departments:
- Civil Engineering and Construction
- Transport, Planning, Environment
- Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
- Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences
- Economics, Management, Finance
- Industrial Engineering and Management
Partnerships with French institutions
French academic partners
- Université Paris-Est
- Paris School of Economics
- PSL Research Institute
- École des ingénieurs de la Ville de Paris (EIVP)
- Écoles de formation du MEDDE
- Conférence des Grandes Écoles
French double-degree agreements
The school also allows students to pursue a double-degree in France with the following institutions:
- ENS Cachan
- HEC Paris
- Science Po Paris
- Paris School of Economics
- Collège des ingénieurs
- IFP School
- École des Ingénieurs de la ville de Paris
Partnerships with international institutions
Over the years, the school has developed institutional relationships with partners around the world. The School has signed cooperation agreements with other leading academic institutions. Among the choices available to students, it is possible to pursue a double-degree at a partner institution ( 4 continents, 23 countries , 33 universities in 2014) . It is also possible to pursue exchange semesters within the framework of bilateral agreements (Berkeley, Georgia Tech, Imperial College or Erasmus exchanges), or research internships in the laboratories of the school's academic partners. In particular, the school has very close ties with Brazil , China and Spain. In the second year of the Ingénieur programme, a third of the cohort comes form partner institutions.
Every year, many students get a double-degree in an establishment approved by the School, including leading universities in the United-States (Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, Princeton, Columbia), the United-Kingdom (London School of Economics, Imperial College, Oxford, Cambridge) and Asia (Tokyo University, NUS , HKU) .
École des Ponts ParisTech runs research in the following disciplines (the names of corresponding research centres are in brackets):
- Atmospheric environment (CEREA)
- Water, urban planning and environment (LEESU)
- Mathematics and scientific computing (CERMICS)
- Information technologies (IMAGINE)
- International environment and development (CIRED)
- Regional planning and social sciences (LATTS)
- Urban planning and transport (LVMT)
- Economics (Paris School of Economics)
- Soil mechanics (CERMES), materials (LAMI), materials and structures of civil engineering (LMSGC), grouped together within UMR Navier
Laboratoire central des ponts et chaussées or LCPC is an Établissement public à caractère scientifique et technologique.
Alumni and faculty
Alumni include (by alphabetical order, French unless indicated):
- Paul Andreu, architect
- Guy Béart, singer and songwriter
- Henri Becquerel, physicist
- Eugène Belgrand, engineer
- Fulgence Bienvenüe, chief engineer for the Paris Métro
- André Blondel, engineer and physicist
- Laurent-Emmanuel Calvet, economist
- Albert Caquot, civil engineer, considered the "best living French engineer" during half a century
- Emiland Gauthey, civil engineer, designer of bridges, canals and roads, uncle of Claude-Louis Navier
- Marie François Sadi Carnot, French president from 1887 to 1894
- Jules Carvallo, civil engineer
- Augustin Louis Cauchy, mathematician
- Louis-Alexandre de Cessart, civil engineer
- Antoine de Chézy
- Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, mathematician and physicist
- Augustin-Jean Fresnel, physicist
- Eugène Freyssinet, structural and civil engineer, pioneer of prestressed concrete
- Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, chemist and physicist
- Hoàng Xuân Hãn, Vietnamese scholar, professor of mathematics, linguist, historian and educationalist
- Fouad Laroui, Moroccan economist and writer
- Alain Lipietz, economist and politician
- Charles Joseph Minard, civil engineer and pioneer of information graphics
- Claude-Louis Navier, engineer and physicist, known for Navier-Stokes equations
- Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, architect and structural engineer
- Antoine Picon, Professor of History of Architecture and Technology and Co-Director of Doctoral programs (PhD & DDes) at Harvard Graduate School of Design
- Prince Souphanouvong, president of Laos from 1975 to 1991
- Jean Tirole, economist
- Daniel-Charles Trudaine, administrator and civil engineer
- Pierre Veltz, academic and École des Ponts ParisTech's former director
- Louis Vicat, engineer, inventor of artificial cement
Past and present faculty include:
- Étienne-Louis Boullée, architect
- Alexander Spiers, English lexicographer
- Yaarub Bader (يعرب بدر), Previous Minister of Transportation in the Syrian Arab Republic
Notes and references
- Official site
- (French) History of École des Ponts ParisTech on the official website
- (French) Alumni website
- (French) Student association website
- (French) ENPC MBA Paris School of International Management
- The École des ponts ParisTech collection at the Internet Archive