Ě

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The grapheme Ě, ě (E with caron) is used in Czech, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian alphabets.

The letter ě is a vestige of Old-Czech palatalization. The originally palatalizing phoneme /ě/ [ʲɛ] became extinct, changing to [ɛ] or [jɛ], but it is preserved as a grapheme.

This letter never appears in the initial position, and its pronunciation depends on the preceding consonant:

  • Dě, tě, ně [ɟɛ, cɛ, ɲɛ] is written instead of ďe, ťe, ňe (analogously to di, ti, ni).
  • Bě, pě, vě, fě is written instead of bje, pje, vje, fje. But in some words (vjezd, entry, drive-in, objem, volume), bje, vje is written because –je- is part of the etymological root of the word, preceded by the prefix v- or ob-.
  • [mɲɛ] is written instead of mňe. For etymological reasons, mně is written in some words (jemný, soft -> jemně, softly).

The grapheme is also use in Croatian to detonate a jat (něsam, věra, lěpo, pověst, tělo...) and could be pronounce depending on specific reflex : Ekavian (nisam, vera, lepo, povest, telo...), Ikavian (nisam, vira, lipo, povist, tilo...), Jekavian (njesam, vjera, ljepo, povjest, tjelo...) or Ijekavian ("nijesam, vijera, lijepo, povijest, tijelo..."). Historically its use was very wide spread, today it is only found in scientific and historically accurate literature.

Character Ě ě
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CARON LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CARON
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 282 U+011A 283 U+011B
UTF-8 196 154 C4 9A 196 155 C4 9B
Numeric character reference Ě Ě ě ě
ISO 8859-2 204 CC 236 EC

See also[edit]