|English: Independence March|
Classroom wall with the lyrics of İstiklal Marşı (far right).
National anthem of
|Lyrics||Mehmet Akif Ersoy, 1925|
|Music||Osman Zeki Üngör, 1925|
|Adopted||12 March 1921|
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The İstiklâl marşı (English: Independence hymn) is the national anthem of Turkey and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, officially adopted on 12 March 1921 - two and a half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of the Republic of Turkey, both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the Turkish War of Independence, and as an anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established.
Penned by Mehmet Âkif Ersoy, ultimately composed by Osman Zeki Üngör, the theme is one of affection for the Turkish homeland, freedom, and faith, of sacrifice for liberty, and of hope and devotion, explored through visual, tactile and kinesthetic imagery as they relate to the flag, the human spirit and the soil of the homeland.
The manuscript by Ersoy, between the title line İstiklal Marşı and the first text line, carries the dedication Kahraman Ordumuza – "To our Heroic Army", the army that won the Independence War. The lyrics reflect on the sacrifice of the soldiers during the War.
The Anthem is regularly heard during state and military events, as well as during national festivals, bayrams, sporting events, and school ceremonies.
Of the ten-stanza anthem, only the first two quatrains are typically sung. A framed version of the national anthem typically occupies the wall above the blackboard in the classrooms of every public – as well as almost every private – school in Turkey (accompanied by a Turkish flag, a photograph of the country's founding father Atatürk, and a copy of Atatürk's famous inspirational speech to the nation's youth).
The anthem was the subject of a brief copyright dispute in 2010, when GEMA, the German music copyright society, attempted to collect royalties on the anthem. The composition has also been adopted as the National Anthem of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, a nation-wide competition was organized to select an original composition for a National March- for which a total of 724 poems were submitted. Mehmet Akif Ersoy, a very well known poet of the time, refused to participate due to the monetary prize of the competition. He was then called and convinced by parliament to submit a poem, disregarding the prize of the competition. This ten-verse poem written by Ersoy was unanimously adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly following evaluation by parliamentary committee; the prize of the competition was granted to a society of veterans.
Shortly thereafter, twenty-four composers participated in another competition arranged for the selection of a musical composition that would suit the elected National Anthem best. The Council, which was only able to convene in 1924 due to the Turkish War of Independence, adopted the music composed by Ali Rıfat Çağatay. Edgar Manas is also known to be one of the three co-authors of the anthem, as he made the arrangements for the orchestra.
|Turkish Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Turkish lyrics||English translation|
1 Although "ırk" means "race" in contemporary Turkish, it had different associations in Ottoman Turkish. In Ottoman Turkish it also carries the connotations of 'generation,' 'offspring' and 'family linage.' Also note that the poet was of Albanian and Uzbek origin.
2 A white crescent and star superimposed on a crimson background comprise the Turkish flag- the poet is invoking the image of the crescent and comparing it to the frowning eyebrows of a sulky face. The flag (and the spirit of freedom which it embodies, under threat from invading nations against whom victory initially seems impossibly difficult to achieve, hence "coy") is being treated as a coy maiden with a sulky face (symbolically, the resentment of the invasion) who is playing hard-to-get. That is, the "coy" flag is being "playful" about letting the troops achieve ultimate victory and thus, freedom.
4 A Turkish poetical word (with no direct English translation) that may refer to anything perceived by Man as a boundless expanse: the heavens, the oceans, the horizon, the Universe, etc.
5 What is being referred to as "civilization" is the invading European nations (France, Britain, Italy and Greece) and their armies, which were superior in terms of equipment and manpower to the war-stricken, undermanned, and underfed Turkish forces that were hastily assembled by patriotic civilians and ex-military officials following World War I. This tight collaboration between civilians and former armed officials was due to the Ottoman Imperial Court's internal corruptions and the presence of individuals in power who preferred to protect their own interests rather than the interests of the greater public. (see Sultan Vahdeddin and Damat Ferid Pasha) This self-preserving behavior manifested itself as political inaction, an openness to foreign manipulation, treacherous collaborationism and the much-protested acceptance of an unjust treaty - actions that ultimately resulted in a hurt national pride, widespread feelings of resentment and humiliation, as well as the anarchic dissolution of the Empire. It was at such a grim point in time that a defiant new organization of armed and civil forces, led by Atatürk, gave the people hope for the future through a series of successful battles and liberation campaigns, which gradually turned into an increasingly successful War of Independence.
Thus, the poet is calling out to the Nation, saying, as it were, "While 'the lands of the West may be armed with walls of steel', i.e., while these European armies may have seemingly impenetrable/unbeatable modern technology and weaponry, do not be fooled/discouraged by their apparent superiority. Look at what we have accomplished so far with virtually non-existent arms and supplies! We are horribly fatigued, and at a disadvantage in every conceivable way, yet we still are able to succeed in our battle for liberty! This seemingly undefeatable 'monster' has had almost every one of its teeth knocked out (hence, 'single-fanged') by our victorious campaign! Our motivation, faith, and internal drive is what has and will continue to carry us through, and that is something that our enemies cannot remotely match. All we need for ultimate victory is the ability to recognize our true 'innate strengths': a 'fiery faith' and the 'mighty chest (i.e. heart) of a believer'".
6 Prostration is the act of laying one's forehead on the ground as part of Muslim sacred ritual (see Namaz, As-Sajda or salat). The image being painted here is that of a battle-fallen and pain-stricken man, who becomes ecstatic following the victorious end of the War of Independence. This is a man whose mind, body and soul have at long last found peace, and may finally ascend and reach the heavens, knowing that his homeland is finally safe and sound and that all his suffering was all worth it in the end.
Notes and references
- "Turkey Scrambles to Protect National Anthem". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- "Turkey: İstiklal Marşı". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - I. Series & II. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
- Vefatını 72. yılında Mehmet Âkif Ersoy bilgi șöleni 3 : Mehmed Âkif edebî ve fikrî akımlar. Ankara: Türkiye Yazarlar Birliği. 2009. p. 54. ISBN 9789757382409.
- "İstiklal Marşı’nın Bestelenmesi Çalışmaları" (in Turkish). Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Külekçi, Cahit (2010). Sosyo-kültürel açıdan Ermeniler ve Türkler: İstanbul Ermenileri (in Turkish). 432: Kayihan. p. 340.
- History of the İstiklal Marşı from the website of the Washington Embassy of The Republic of Turkey- The Turkish Flag and National Anthem
- Official Records of the Grand National Assembly of The Republic of Turkey on the parliamentary debates and history of the İstiklal Marşı- Zabit Ceridesi - 12.03.1921 (Turkish)
- Society for the Study and Preservation of the İstiklal Marşı- İstiklal Marşı ve Tarihçesi (Turkish)
- Documentary on the Turkish National Anthem- İstiklal Marşı Belgeseli (Turkish)
- İstiklal Marşı Research Publication- İstiklal Marşı Anlam ve Önemi (Turkish)
- Turkey: İstiklal Marşı - Audio of the national anthem of Turkey, with information and lyrics
- Vocal of the İstiklal Marşı in Ogg Vorbis
- Dramatic Reading of the text of the İstiklal Marşı
- İstiklal Marşı - Instrumental version
- İstiklal Marşı - Acoustic Guitar version
- İstiklal Marşı - Electric Guitar version
- İstiklal Marşı - Baglama version
- İstiklal Marşı - Guitar Chords in PDF format
- The Original Composition by Ali Rıfat Çağatay