Říp from the south
|Elevation||459 m (1,506 ft)|
|Prominence||200 m (656 ft)|
Říp Mountain (Czech: hora Říp, IPA: [ˈɦora ˈr̝iːp] ( )), also known as Říp Hill, is a 459 m solitary hill rising up from the central Bohemian flatland where, according to legend, the first Czechs settled. Říp is located 20 km south-east of Litoměřice, Czech Republic.
Geologically, Říp is the erosional remnant of a Late Oligocene volcano and is composed of basalt nephelites containing olivine granules, amphibole, leucite and — among others — magnetite, so a local magnetic anomaly can even be observed there by the compass. The hill was bare until 1879 when Mořic Lobkowitz had it planted with trees. Today, almost all of the mountain is covered by an oak-and-hornbeam forest with some maple, pine ash, and linden trees. Some rare thermophile plants can be found at the few tree-less places on the top of the hill, such as Gagea bohemica and Iris pumila.
Říp, being visible from great distance, has always been an important orientation point in the Bohemian scenery and has attracted attention since the oldest times. The name of the mountain is of pre-Slavic origin and probably comes from the Germanic stem *rīp- which means "an elevation, a hill".
According to a traditional legend, first recorded by the ancient Czech chronicler Cosmas of Prague in the early 12th century, Říp was the place where the first Slavs, led by Praotec Čech (Forefather Bohemus), settled. The land was named after the leader. In the 16th century, the legend was revived by Václav Hájek of Libočany who claimed that Čech was buried in the nearby village of Ctiněves and, later on, by Alois Jirásek in his Old Bohemian Legends from 1894.
On top of the hill there is a romanesque rotunda of Saint George built by Soběslav I in 1126 to commemorate his victorious battle of Chlumec where he defeated Lothair III. The top of Říp became a popular pilgrimage place and a frequent site of national manifestations and mass meetings. A famous manifestation was held there on 10 May 1868 when the foundation stone was taken from the hill for the newly built National Theatre in Prague. The present appearance of the rotunda is the result of a purist reconstruction from the 1870s.
Near the rotunda there is a tourist hut that was built in 1907 that still serves travellers today. In accordance with the patriotic spirit of the time, a wooden plate is mounted on the hut wall that says "What Mecca is to a Mohammedan, Říp should be to a Czech" (Czech: "Co Mohammedu Mekka, to Čechu má být Říp"). Inside the rotunda, there is a stone sculpture by the famous contemporary Czech artist Stanislav Hanzík (1979) The Good Shepherd, that symbolizes the arrival of Czech ancestors to the country and the beginning of the Czech history there.
- Profous, Antonín (1951). Místní jména v Čechách: Jejich vznik, původní význam a změny, díl 3. M-Ř. Prague, Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.