Voiced palatal stop

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Voiced palatal stop
ɟ
IPA number 108
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ
Unicode (hex) U+025F
X-SAMPA J\
Kirshenbaum J
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɟ, a barred dotless j which was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter f. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.

If distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed [ɟ̟], [d̠ʲ], or [d͡ɟ].

The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ], as in English jump (although it is a stop, not an affricate; the most similar stop phoneme to this sound in English is [ɡ], as in argue), and because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge,[1] [ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [dʒ]. It is also common for the symbol /ɟ/ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop, or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal stop:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian[2] gjuha [ˈɟuha] 'tongue' Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian for all speakers and in Tosk for some speakers[3]
Arabic[4] Sudanese جمل [ɟæˈmæl] 'camel' Some dialects; corresponds to /d͡ʒ/, /ʒ/ or /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Yemeni
Basque anddere [aɲɟe̞ɾe̞] 'doll'
Catalan Majorcan[5] guix [ˈɟiɕ] 'chalk' Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Corsican fighjulà [viɟɟuˈla] 'to watch'
Czech dělám [ɟɛlaːm] 'I do' See Czech phonology
Dinka jir [ɟir] 'blunt'
Ega[6] [ɟé] 'become numerous'
English Australian[7] geese [ɟɪi̯s] 'geese' Allophone of /ɡ/ before /iː ɪ e eː æ æɪ æɔ ɪə j/,[7] more commonly pre-velar.[7] See Australian English phonology
Friulian gjat [ɟat] 'cat'
German Studium [ˈʃtuːɟʊm] '(academic) studies' Allophone of more frequent [dj] or [di]. See German phonology
Hungarian[8] gyám [ɟaːm] 'guardian' See Hungarian phonology
Irish Gaeilge [ˈɡeːlʲɟə] 'Gaelic' See Irish phonology
Latvian ģimene [ˈɟime̞ne̞] 'family'
Ganda jjajja [ɟːaɟːa] 'grandfather'
Macedonian раѓање [ˈraɟaɲɛ] 'birth' See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Central[9] fadder [fɑɟːeɾ] 'godparent' See Norwegian phonology
Northern[9]
Occitan Auvergnat diguèt [ɟiˈɡɛ] 'said' (3rd pers. sing.) See Occitan phonology
Limousin dissèt [ɟiˈʃɛ]
Portuguese Some Brazilian speakers pedinte [piˈɟĩc̟ˢi̥] 'pauper', 'beggar' Some speakers might not affricate the dental stops before /i/ (usual and standard in Brazil), but still all retract.[10] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[11] ghimpe [ˈɟimpe̞] 'thorn' Allophone of /ɡ/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology
Slovak ďaleký [ˈɟalʲekiː] 'far' Alveolo-palatal.[12]
Spanish Canarian coche [ˈkoɟe] 'car' [ɟ] is proper of rural speech, the allophone [c] is more common. See Canarian Spanish.
Taiwanese 攑手 gia̍h-tshiú [ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩] '(to) raise hand'
Turkish güneş [ɟyˈne̞ʃ] 'sun' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese North-central dialect da [ɟa˧] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology

Voiced pre-velar stop[edit]

Voiced pre-velar stop
ɟ̠

The voiced pre-velar stop or voiced pre-velar plosive is a consonant occurring in standard Modern Greek. It's equally valid to use the term post-palatal instead of pre-velar, since they're essentially equivalent.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced pre-velar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is pre-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the hard and the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[13] guix [g̟iɕ] 'chalk' Allophone of /g/ before front vowels.[13] See Catalan phonology
English Australian[7] geese [g̟ɪi̯s] 'geese' Allophone of /ɡ/ before /iː ɪ e eː æ æɪ æɔ ɪə j/,[7] less commonly palatal.[7] See Australian English phonology
Greek[14] μετάγγιση metággisi [me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i] 'transfusion' See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Standard[15] ghianda [ˈg̟jän̪ːd̪ä] 'acorn' Allophone of /g/ before /i e ɛ j/.[15] See Italian phonology
Yanyuwa[16] [ɡ̄ug̟uɭu] 'sacred' Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]