Near-close near-front rounded vowel

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Near-close near-front rounded vowel
ʏ
IPA number 320
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʏ
Unicode (hex) U+028F
X-SAMPA Y
Kirshenbaum I.
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Sound

The near-close near-front rounded vowel, or near-high near-front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʏ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Y.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, though many linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips (in an exolabial manner). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded (in an endolabial manner). This is the case with Swedish, which contrasts the two types of rounding.

Near-close near-front compressed vowel[edit]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Note: Since front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Western գիւղ [kʰʏʁ] 'village'
Chinese Wu tseu [tsœʏ˩˧] 'walk' Occurs only in some dialects such as Ningbo dialect and Suzhou dialect
English Southern English[1] book [bʏk] 'book' Some dialects.[1] Corresponds to /ʊ/ in other English dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[2] mule [mjʏl] 'mule' Short allophone of /u/; occurs only after /j/. See English phonology
Faroese krúss [kɹʏsː] 'mug'
French Quebec lune [lʏn] 'moon' Allophone of /y/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[3] schützen [ˈʃʏt͡sn̩] 'protect' May be somewhat lowered.[4] See German phonology
Icelandic vinur [ˈvɪːnʏr] 'friend' See Icelandic phonology
Lori tü [tʏ] 'you'
Portuguese Azorean[5] figura [fiˈɣʏ̝ɾə] 'figure' Stressed vowel, fronting of original /u/ in some dialects. Raised, i.e. fully close. See Portuguese phonology
Peninsular[6] tudo [ˈt̪ʏ̝ðu] 'all', 'everything'
Swedish ut About this sound [ʏβ̞t̪]  'out' May be central in other dialects. See Swedish phonology

Dutch u is often transcribed as /ʏ/, but it's actually a central vowel, close-mid [ɵ] in the Netherlands,[7][8] and near-close [ʊ̈] in Belgium.[9]

Near-close near-front protruded vowel[edit]

Near-close near-front protruded vowel
ʏ̫
ʏʷ
ɪʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (together with height and duration).[10]

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, old diacritic for labialization, ◌̫, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ʏʷ or ɪʷ (a near-close near-front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Standard Eastern[11] nytt [nʏ̫tː] 'new' Described variously as near-front[12] and advanced near-front.[13] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish ylle About this sound [ˈʏ̫l̪ːɛ]  'wool' See Swedish phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominik (2004), "The dialects in the South of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–196, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Rietveld, A.C.M.; Van Heuven, V.J. (2009), Algemene Fonetiek, Uitgeverij Coutinho 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173