Voiced palatal fricative

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Voiced palatal fricative[edit]

Voiced palatal fricative
ʝ
IPA number 139
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
X-SAMPA j\
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription j, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database.[citation needed] In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[1] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Greek Cypriot[2] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/
Hungarian[3] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw (one/some) in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[4] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Pashto Wardak dialect[5] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Scottish Gaelic[6] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Spanish[7] sayo [ˈsaʝo̞] 'smock' More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ll in most dialects. See Yeísmo
Swedish[8] jord About this sound [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology

Voiced pre-velar fricative[edit]

Voiced pre-velar fricative
ɣ̟

The voiced pre-velar fricative or voiced post-palatal fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Belgian Dutch and in the The Netherlands, primarily in the provinces of Brabant and Limburg and parts of Gelderland. The sound, the so-called 'soft g', is sometimes - erroneously - described as a voiced palatal fricative. It would however be correct to consider the sound a voiced post-palatal fricative.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced pre-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is pre-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the hard and the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Southern geld [ɣ̟ɛl̪t̪] 'money' Not all dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
Greek Standard Modern[9][10] γένος About this sound [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s]  'gender' See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[11] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[11]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge University Press) 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7