|Languages||Georgian and other Kartvelian languages|
|Time period||430 to present|
modeled on Greek
|ISO 15924||Geor, 240|
|Geok (241, Khutsuri)|
The Georgian word ანბანი (anbani) meaning "alphabet" is derived from ა (ani) and ბ (bani), the names of the first two letters of the three Georgian alphabets, which, although they look very different from one another, share the same alphabetical order and letter names. The alphabets can be seen mixed in some context, although Georgian is formally unicameral meaning there is normally no distinction between upper and lower case in any of the alphabets. The current Georgian alphabet has 33 letters.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Asomtavruli
- 3 Nuskhuri
- 4 Use of Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri today
- 5 Mkhedruli
- 6 Ligatures, abbreviations and calligraphy
- 7 Punctuation
- 8 Summary
- 9 Use for other non-Kartvelian languages
- 10 Unicode
- 11 Keyboard layout
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 External links
The origins of the Georgian alphabet are poorly known, and no full agreement exists among Georgian and foreign scholars as to its date of creation, who designed the script, and the main influences on that process. The oldest uncontested example of Georgian writing is an inscription in the Asomtavruli script dated 430 AD, in a church in Bethlehem, Palestine. The oldest example of the script being used in Georgia was discovered in a small church of the Virgin in highland village of Davati, the Davati stela, which itself is a recent discovery, and is assumed to have been created around year 367.
The older, outdated scholarly consensus points to the Georgian alphabet being created sometime in the late 4th to early 5th century, contemporaneously with the Armenian alphabet. The first version of the alphabet attested is the Asomtavruli script; the other scripts were formed in the following centuries. Most scholars link the creation of the Georgian alphabet to the process of Christianisation of the Georgian-speaking lands, that is Lazica (or Colchis) in the west, Kartli (or Iberia) in the east. The alphabet was therefore most probably created between the conversion of Iberia under Mirian III (326 or 337) and the Bethlehem inscription of 430. It was first used for translation of the Bible and other Christian literature into Georgian, by monks in Georgia and Palestine.
A point of contention among scholars is the role played by Armenian clerics in that process. Armenian tradition holds Mesrop Mashtots, generally acknowledged as the creator of the Armenian alphabet, to have also created the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets. This tradition originates in the works of Koryun, a fifth century historian and biographer of Mashtots, and has been quoted in some Western sources, but has been criticized by scholars, both Georgian and Western, who judge the passage in Koryun unreliable or even a later interpolation. Other scholars quote Koryun's claims without taking a stance on its validity. Many agree, however, that Armenian clerics, if not Mashtots himself, must have played a role in the creation of the Georgian script.
A competing Georgian tradition, first attested in medieval chronicles such as the Lives of the Kings of Kartli (ca. 800), assigns a much earlier, pre-Christian origin to the Georgian alphabet, and names King Pharnavaz I (3rd century BC) as its inventor. This account is now considered legendary, and is rejected by scholarly consensus, as no archaeological confirmation has been found. Georgian linguist Tamaz Gamkrelidze offers an alternate interpretation of the tradition, in the pre-Christian use of foreign scripts (alloglotography in the Aramaic alphabet) to write down Georgian texts.
Another scientific controversy regards the main influences at play in the Georgian alphabet, as scholars have debated whether it was inspired more by the Greek alphabet, or by Semitic writing systems such as Aramaic. Recent historiography focuses on greater similarities with the Greek alphabet than in the other Caucasian writing systems, most notably the order and numeric value of letters. Some scholars have also suggested as a possible inspiration for particular letters certain pre-Christian Georgian cultural symbols or clan markers.
Asomtavruli (Georgian: ასომთავრული) is the first and oldest script of the Georgian alphabet. Asomtavruli, literally meaning the "capital letters" derives from aso (ასო) meaning "letter" and mtavari (მთავარი) meaning "main, principal or head". It is also known as Mrgvlovani (Georgian: მრგვლოვანი) named because of its round shapes as the word mrgvali (მრგვალი) means "round". Despite its common Georgian name, this rounded alphabet is originally purely unicameral, just like the modern Georgian alphabet, Mkhedruli.
The oldest inscriptions in Asomtavruli are found from the 5th century. So far, the inscriptions found in Bethlehem and the Bolnisi Sioni Cathedral are the oldest ones written in the Asomtavruli script of the Georgian alphabet.
In the 9th century, Nuskhuri script gradually gets more dominant and the role of Asomtavruli is reduced in writing, although it still retains some value. In particular, the Georgian epigraphic monuments of the 10th to 18th centuries are still written in Asomtavruli script. Graphical features of Asomtavruli in the later period is characterized by acquiring more decorative purposes too. The 9th-century Georgian manuscripts, majority of which is written in the Nuskhuri script, Asomtavruli is used only for the titles and as the capital letters. Although, some manuscripts written completely in Asomtavruli can be found till the 11th century.
In early Asomtavruli, the letters have the equal height and are placed in two-linear system. The writing direction is from left to the right and no other direction has been confirmed in any way in any of the inscriptions or the manuscripts. However, despite this, the Georgian historian and philologist Pavle Ingorokva believes that the Georgian alphabet like the Greek alphabet initially used the boustrophedon writing system.
Letters of Asomtavruli are constructed with geometric graphic elements like straight lines of different length, circumferences and half-circle lines of different radius. It is always the right angles from where the graphical elements of the Asomtavruli letters are connected. The only letter of Asomtavruli which violates the rule of connection of graphical elements at the right angle is the letter ჯ (jani), the constituent elements of which are cross-linked by straight lines with its sharp corners. This exception is explained by various scientists. According to Helen Machavariani, the outline and contour of letter ჯ (jani) is the initials of Jesus Christ resulted through the crosswise intersection of letters ი (ini) and ქ (kani) and represents the monogram of Jesus. According to Ramaz Pataridze the cross-like shape of letter ჯ (jani) indicates the end of the alphabet and has the same function as the similar-shaped Phoenician Taw , Greek Chi Χ and the Latin X.
Coins of Queen Tamar of Georgia and King George IV of Georgia in Asomtavruli, 1200-1210 AD.
From the 7th century, the graphics of some Asomtavruli letters begin to change. In particular, in seven letters of ბ (bani), ჟ (zhani), ჳ (vie), ყ (qari), შ (shini), წ (tsili) and ჭ (chari) the closed circumference becomes more simple and an open arc takes its place from one side. Asomtavruli letter დ (doni) which is represented in the early monuments without the throat, then on the upper horizontal line the circle gets a smaller throat . The equal heights of the letters get violated, some letters become more long and thus can no longer be placed in the two-linear system.
In the Nuskhuri written manuscripts, Asomtavruli is found mainly in the form of titles and capital letters. Capital letters of Asomtavruli were written in the beginnings of the paragraphs which created an orientation for the readers. In the early stages of the development of the books they were not painted and it was distinguished only with large size in the text, sometimes with the color and such capital letters are often performed with cinnabar. Later from the 10th century, painting of capital letters occurs, resulting in an important place in the ornamental decoration of the manuscripts of the Georgian books and the miniatures. Often the Asomtavruli capital letters with the beautifully written text identifies the style of the specific era. For example the Georgian manuscripts of the Byzantine era in the period of the relations between the Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Georgia, the art of the Asomtavruli capital letters is enriched with the images of birds and animals.
Decorative Asomtavruli capital letters, მ (m) and ნ (n), 12th century.
From the 11th century "limb-flowery", "limb-arrowy" and "limb-spoty" decorative forms of Asomtavruli are developed. The first two are found in 11th- and 12th-century monuments, while the third one is used till the 18th century.
The "Curly" decorative form of Asomtavruli is also used where the letters are wattled or intermingled on each other, or the smaller letters are written inside other letters. It was mostly used for the headlines of the manuscripts or the books, although there are compete inscriptions which were written in the Asomtavruli "Curly" form only.
The title of Gospel of Matthew in Asomtavruli "Curly" decorative form.
Some systems do not show the actual Asomtavruli forms for these letters, but instead show taller "capitalized" variants of the modern Mkhedruli alphabet. You may also see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Asomtavruli letters.
Nuskhuri (Georgian: ნუსხური) is a second script of the Georgian alphabet. Nuskhuri comes from the word nuskha (ნუსხა) which means "inventory" or "schedule". Nuskhuri is initially purely unicameral. Nuskhuri is often referred as Khutsuri (Georgian: ხუცური) or sometimes Nuskha-Khutsuri (Georgian: ნუსხა-ხუცური), as Nuskhuri being used along with Asomtavruli for mostly the religious manuscripts it became an "ecclesiastical", "church" and "clerical" script mostly used in hagiography.
Nuskhuri first appears in the 9th century. The oldest inscription in Nuskhuri is found in the Ateni Sioni Church which date back to 835 AD. Nuskhuri first appears in the manuscripts from 864 AD. Nuskhuri script gets more dominant over Asomtavruli from the 10th century.
The forms of Nuskhuri letters may have been derived from the northern Arsacid variant of the Pahlavi script, which itself was derived from the older Aramaic, although the direction of writing which is left to right, the use of separate symbols for the vowel sounds, the numerical values assigned to the letters in earlier times, and the order of the letters all point to significant Greek influence on the script. However, the Georgian linguist Tamaz Gamkrelidze argues that the forms of the letters are freely invented in imitation of the Greek model rather than directly based upon earlier forms of the Aramaic alphabet, even though the Georgian phonological inventory is very different from Greek.
In Nuskhuri, the letters are written in the four-linear system and they vary in height. A characteristic feature of Nuskhuri is the deviation of its letters to the right. In general, the body of each letter is deviated, but this inclination is even stronger in those letters with upper or lower limbs. Nuskhuri letters have an angular shape. In Nuskhuri, the tendency to simplify the contour of its letters is noticeable, while Asomtavruli is more strict. In Nuskhuri, the letters are created in a single outline. One of the reasons of formation of Nuskhuri was the need of quick writing.
Asomtavruli letters ო (oni) and ჳ (vie), with mixing of these letters in Nuskhuri resulted in creation of a new letter უ (uni)
You may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Nuskhuri letters as some systems do not show their actual forms.
Use of Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri today
Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri alphabets are still used today in some section headings and book titles, and sometimes used in a pseudo-bicameral way by varying the glyph sizes for creating capitals. Since they are no longer universally used for writing Georgian, they've also been reused in a creative way for writing capital letters, along with letters of the Mkhedruli alphabet. Georgian linguist Akaki Shanidze made an attempt in the 1950s to reintroduce Asomtavruli into modern Georgian writing as capital letters, but it didn't catch on and failed to gain popularity. Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri are officially used by the Georgian Orthodox Church alongside with the Mkhedruli alphabet. Patriarch Ilia II of Georgia also called to use all 3 Georgian scripts.
Mkhedruli (Georgian: მხედრული) is a third and current Georgian script used to write all Kartvelian languages. Mkhedruli, literally meaning the "cavalry" or "military" derives from mkhedari (მხედარი) meaning "horseman", "knight", "warrior" and "cavalier". Like the two other alphabets, Mkhedruli alphabet is also purely unicameral.
Mkhedruli first appears in the 10th century. The oldest Mkhedruli inscription is found in Ateni Sioni Church dating back to 982 AD. The second oldest Mkhedruli-written text is found in the 11th-century royal charters of King Bagrat IV of Georgia. Mkhedruli was mostly used then in the Kingdom of Georgia for the royal charters, historical documents, manuscripts and inscriptions. Mkhedruli was used for non-religious purposes only and represented the "civil", "royal" and "secular" script.
Mkhedruli was becoming more and more dominant over the two other Georgian alphabets, even though Nuskhuri was still used till the 19th century, it completely replaced Nuskhuri. Since the 19th century, with the establishment and development of the printed Georgian fonts, Mkhedruli became widespread and universal for writing Georgian language.
Mkhedruli inscriptions of the 10th and 11th centuries are characterized in rounding of angular shapes of Nuskhuri letters and making the complete outlines in all of its letters. Mkhedruli letters are written in the four-linear system, similar to Nuskhuri. Mkhedruli becomes more round and free in writing. It breaks the strict frame of the previous two alphabets, Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri. Mkhedruli letters begin to get coupled and more free calligraphy develops.
Example of one of the oldest Mkhedruli-written texts found in the royal charter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia, 11th century.
Some Mkhedruli letters have alternative written forms:
different written form of letter დ
different written form of letter ლ
different written form of letter რ
different written form of letter ო
different written form of letter წ
The Society for the Spreading of Literacy Among Georgians founded by Prince Ilia Chavchavadze in 1879 discarded 5 letters which were either dropped entirely or replaced by the sounds they had become.
- ჱ (he), sometimes called "ei" or "e-merve" ("eighth e"). As in Ancient Greek (Ήτα, ēta), it holds the eighth place in the Georgian alphabet. The name and shapes of the letter in Asomtavruli (Ⴡ) and Nuskhuri (ⴡ) also resemble Greek's tack-shaped archaic consonantal heta. In old Georgian, he was interchangeable with the digraph (ეჲ). It represented [ei] or [ej].
- ჲ (hie), also called iot'a, often marked Georgian nouns in the nominative case. In Old Georgian, it represented [i] or [j].
- ჳ (vie) represented the diphthong [ui] or [uj]. It holds the same position and numerical value as Ancient Greek's Υυ upsilon, which its Asomtavruli (Ⴣ) and Nuskhuri (ⴣ) versions resemble. Its modern pronunciation is usually like (უ) [u] or (ი) [i].
- ჴ (qar, har) represented [q] or [qʰ], the non-ejective counterpart to (ყ) (q'ar) above. Although this consonant is still distinguished in Svan, its modern pronunciation in Georgian is identical to (ხ) [χ].
- ჵ (hoe), also called oh, represented a long (ო), [oː].
- ჶ (fi) was borrowed to represent the phoneme /f/ in loanwords from Latin and Greek, such as ჶილოსოჶია (filosofia, 'philosophy'). Its name and shape derive from Greek. It is also a letter of the Mkhedruli Ossetian and Laz alphabets. In modern Georgian, (ფ) par replaces fi.
- ჷ (shva), also called yn, represents the mid central vowel [ə]. It is a letter of the Mingrelian, Laz and Svan alphabets.
- ჸ (elifi) represents the glottal stop [ʔ]. Its name derives from Aramaic. It appears in the Mingrelian and rarely in Laz alphabet.
- უ̌ (un-brjgu) represented a short [u] in Old Georgian. It is still used in the Svan, Mingrelian and Laz alphabets. In modern Georgian, it has been replaced by (ვ) vin.
Ligatures, abbreviations and calligraphy
A ligature of the Asomtavruli initials of King Vakhtang I of Iberia, გ (g) and ნ (n)
A ligature of the Asomtavruli letters და (da) "and"
Nuskhuri, like Asomtavruli is also often highly stylized. Writers readily formed ligatures and abbreviations for nomina sacra, including diacritics called karagma, which resemble titla. Because writing materials such as vellum were scarce and therefore precious, abbreviating was a practical measure widespread in manuscripts and hagiography by the 11th century.
A Nuskhuri abbreviation of რომელი (romeli) "which"
A Nuskhuri abbreviation of იესო ქრისტე (ieso kriste) "Jesus Christ"
Mkhedruli, in the 11th to 17th centuries also came to employ digraphs to the point that they were obligatory, requiring adhesion to a complex system.
A Mkhedruli ligature of და (da) "and"
Mkhedruli has the most developed calligraphy in comparison with Asomtavruli or Nuskhuri.
Mkhedruli calligraphy of Prince Garsevan Chavchavadze and King Archil of Imereti
In Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri punctuation, dots were used as word dividers and other functions. In the monuments and manuscripts of 5th to 10th centuries marks like -, = and =- were also used. In the 10th century, a new rule appears in Georgian punctuation, a rule of writing with one (·), two (:), three (჻) and six (჻჻) dots. (See for example the title of the Gospel of Matthew above.) Starting in the 11th century an apostrophe and comma came into use. From the 12th century a semicolon appears as well. Patriarch Anton I of Georgia also created the new system for the Georgian punctuation. He divided the sentences into complete, non-complete and ending parts and in these sentences one and two dots were used. For the most part, Georgian uses the same punctuation as is used with the Latin script.
ჴლმწიფე ჻ ალექსანდრე
"The sovereign Alexander"
This table lists the three alphabets in parallel columns, including the letters that are now obsolete (shown with a blue background). "National" is the transliteration system used by the Georgian government, while "Laz" is the system used in northeastern Turkey for the Laz language. The table also shows the traditional numeric values of the letters.
|Ⴀ||ⴀ||ა||U+10D0||an||/ɑ/||A a||A a||A a||A a||1|
|Ⴁ||ⴁ||ბ||U+10D1||ban||/b/||B b||B b||B b||B b||2|
|Ⴂ||ⴂ||გ||U+10D2||gan||/ɡ/||G g||G g||G g||G g||3|
|Ⴃ||ⴃ||დ||U+10D3||don||/d/||D d||D d||D d||D d||4|
|Ⴄ||ⴄ||ე||U+10D4||en||/ɛ/||E e||E e||E e||E e||5|
|Ⴅ||ⴅ||ვ||U+10D5||vin||/v/||V v||V v||V v||V v||6|
|Ⴆ||ⴆ||ზ||U+10D6||zen||/z/||Z z||Z z||Z z||Z z||7|
|Ⴇ||ⴇ||თ||U+10D7||tan||/tʰ/||T t||T' t'||T' t'||T t||9|
|Ⴈ||ⴈ||ი||U+10D8||in||/i/||I i||I i||I i||I i||10|
|Ⴉ||ⴉ||კ||U+10D9||k'an||/kʼ/||K' k'||K k||K k||K' k'||20|
|Ⴊ||ⴊ||ლ||U+10DA||las||/l/||L l||L l||L l||L l||30|
|Ⴋ||ⴋ||მ||U+10DB||man||/m/||M m||M m||M m||M m||40|
|Ⴌ||ⴌ||ნ||U+10DC||nar||/n/||N n||N n||N n||N n||50|
|Ⴍ||ⴍ||ო||U+10DD||on||/ɔ/||O o||O o||O o||O o||70|
|Ⴎ||ⴎ||პ||U+10DE||p'ar||/pʼ/||P' p'||P p||P p||P' p'||80|
|Ⴏ||ⴏ||ჟ||U+10DF||zhan||/ʒ/||Zh zh||Ž ž||Zh zh||J j||90|
|Ⴐ||ⴐ||რ||U+10E0||rae||/r/||R r||R r||R r||R r||100|
|Ⴑ||ⴑ||ს||U+10E1||san||/s/||S s||S s||S s||S s||200|
|Ⴒ||ⴒ||ტ||U+10E2||t'ar||/tʼ/||T' t'||T t||T t||T' t'||300|
|Ⴓ||ⴓ||უ||U+10E3||un||/u/||U u||U u||U u||U u||400*|
|Ⴔ||ⴔ||ფ||U+10E4||par||/pʰ/||P p||P' p'||P' p'||P p||500|
|Ⴕ||ⴕ||ქ||U+10E5||kan||/kʰ/||K k||K' k'||K' k'||K k||600|
|Ⴖ||ⴖ||ღ||U+10E6||ghan||/ɣ/||Gh gh||Ḡ ḡ||Gh gh||Ğ ğ||700|
|Ⴗ||ⴗ||ყ||U+10E7||q'ar||/qʼ/||Q' q'||Q q||Q q||Q q||800|
|Ⴘ||ⴘ||შ||U+10E8||shin||/ʃ/||Sh sh||Š š||Sh sh||Ş ş||900|
|Ⴙ||ⴙ||ჩ||U+10E9||chin||/tʃ/||Ch ch||Č' č'||Ch' ch'||Ç ç||1000|
|Ⴚ||ⴚ||ც||U+10EA||tsan||/ts/||Ts ts||C' c'||Ts' ts'||Ts ts||2000|
|Ⴛ||ⴛ||ძ||U+10EB||dzil||/dz/||Dz dz||J j||Dz dz||Ž ž||3000|
|Ⴜ||ⴜ||წ||U+10EC||ts'il||/tsʼ/||Ts' ts'||C c||Ts ts||Ts' ts'||4000|
|Ⴝ||ⴝ||ჭ||U+10ED||ch'ar||/tʃʼ/||Ch' ch'||Č č||Ch ch||Ç' ç'||5000|
|Ⴞ||ⴞ||ხ||U+10EE||khan||/x/||Kh kh||X x||Kh kh||X x||6000|
|Ⴤ||ⴤ||ჴ||U+10F4||qar, har||/q/, /qʰ/||-||-||-||-||7000|
|Ⴟ||ⴟ||ჯ||U+10EF||jan||/dʒ/||J j||J̌ ǰ||J j||C c||8000|
|Ⴠ||ⴠ||ჰ||U+10F0||hae||/h/||H h||H h||H h||H h||9000|
* ჳ and უ have the same numeric value (400).
Use for other non-Kartvelian languages
- Ossetian language during the 1940s.
- Abkhaz language during the 1940s.
- Ingush language (historically), later replaced in the 17th century by Arabic and by the Cyrillic script in modern times.
- Chechen language (historically), later replaced in the 17th century by Arabic and by the Cyrillic script in modern times.
- Avar language (historically), later replaced in the 17th century by Arabic and by the Cyrillic script in modern times.
- Turkish language and Tatar language. A Turkish Gospel, dictionary, poems, medical book dating from the 18th century.
- Persian language. The 18th-century Persian translation of the Arabic Gospel is kept at the National Center of Manuscripts in Tbilisi.
- Russian language. In the collections of the National Center of Manuscripts in Tbilisi there are also a few short poems in the Russian language written in Georgian script dating from the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
- Other Northeast Caucasian languages. The Georgian script was used for writing North Caucasian and Dagestani languages in connection with Georgian missionary activities in the areas starting in the 18th century.
Old Avar crosses with Avar language inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli script.
The first Georgian script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0. In creation of the Georgian Unicode big role was played by the German linguist of the Caucasian Studies Jost Gippert and American-Irish linguist and script encoder Michael Everson who created the Georgian Unicode for the Macintosh systems. Significant contributions were also made by Anton Dumbadze and Irakli Garibashvili. (not the current Prime Minister of Georgia Irakli Garibashvili)
In Unicode version 1.0 the U+10A0 – U+10CF range of the Georgian block represented Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri). With the release of version 4.1 in March, 2005 Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri were "disunified". The U+10A0 – U+10CF range of the Georgian block now represents Asomtavruli and the Georgian Supplement block represents Nuskhuri.
The Unicode block for Georgian is U+10A0 – U+10FF. Mkhedruli (modern Georgian) occupies the U+10D0 – U+10FF range and Asomtavruli occupies the U+10A0 – U+10CF range.
The Unicode block for Georgian Supplement is U+2D00 – U+2D2F and it encodes Nuskhuri.
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
|„ “||1 !||2 @||3 #||4 $||5 %||6 ^||7 &||8 *||9 (||0 )||- _||= +|| ←–––
|Tab key||ქ||წ ჭ||ე ჱ||რ ღ||ტ თ||ყ ჸ||უ||ი ჲ||ო||პ||Brackets||Brackets||Enter key
|Caps lock||ა ჺ||ს შ||დ||ფ ჶ||გ ჹ||ჰ ჵ||ჯ ჟ ჷ||კ||ლ||: ;||" '|| ~
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|\||ზ ძ||ხ ჴ||ც ჩ||ვ ჳ||ბ||ნ ჼ||მ|| ,
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Gallery of Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli alphabets.
Gallery of Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli at Barakoni
Asomtavruli at Doliskana
Asomtavruli at Ishkhani
Asomtavruli at Nikortsminda Cathedral
Gallery of Nuskhuri
Gallery of Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli of King Bagrat IV of Georgia
Mkhedruli of King George II of Georgia
Mkhedruli of King David IV of Georgia
Mkhedruli of King George III of Georgia
Mkhedruli of Queen Tamar of Georgia
Mkhedruli of King George IV of Georgia
Mkhedruli of King George V of Georgia
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Georgian alphabet.|
- Georgian Braille
- Georgian calligraphy
- Old Georgian language
- Georgian calendar
- Georgian numerals
- Georgian national system of romanization
- date of the oldest found Georgian inscription; not a date of creation
- Georgia Through Earth, Fire, Air and Water, Michael Berman, Manana Rusieshvili, Ketevan Kalandadze, p.4
- Standard Languages and Multilingualism in European History, Matthias Hüning, Ulrike Vogl, Olivier Moliner, John Benjamins Publishing, 2012, p.299
- Abramishvili, G & Aleksidze, Z. (1990), "A national motif in the iconographic programme depicted on the Davati Stela". Le Muséon
- Harald Haarmann (2012). "Ethnic Conflict and standardisation in the Caucasus". In Matthias Hüning, Ulrike Vogl, Olivier Moliner. Standard Languages and Multilingualism in European History. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-90-272-0055-6. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Stephen H. Rapp Jr (2010). "Georgian Christianity". In Ken Parry. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- B. G. Hewitt (1995). Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 978-90-272-3802-3. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Seibt, Werner. "The Creation of the Caucasian Alphabets as Phenomenon of Cultural History".
- Koryun's Life of Mashtots
- Donald Rayfield The Literature of Georgia: A History (Caucasus World). RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1163-5. P. 19. "The Georgian alphabet seems unlikely to have a pre-Christian origin, for the major archaeological monument of the 1st century 4IX the bilingual Armazi gravestone commemorating Serafua, daughter of the Georgian viceroy of Mtskheta, is inscribed in Greek and Aramaic only. It has been believed, and not only in Armenia, that all the Caucasian alphabets — Armenian, Georgian and Caucaso-Albanian — were invented in the 4th century by the Armenian scholar Mesrop Mashtots.<...> The Georgian chronicles The Life of Kartli - assert that a Georgian script was invented two centuries before Christ, an assertion unsupported by archaeology. There is a possibility that the Georgians, like many minor nations of the area, wrote in a foreign language — Persian, Aramaic, or Greek — and translated back as they read."
- Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-51173-5. P. 289. James R. Russell. Alphabets. "Mastoc' was a charismatic visionary who accomplished his task at a time when Armenia stood in danger of losing both its national identity, through partition, and its newly acquired Christian faith, through Sassanian pressure and reversion to paganism. By preaching in Armenian, he was able to undermine and co-opt the discourse founded in native tradition, and to create a counterweight against both Byzantine and Syriac cultural hegemony in the church. Mastoc' also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model."
- Georgian: ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, გვ. 205-208, 240-245
- Robert W. Thomson. Rewriting Caucasian history: the medieval Armenian adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles : the original Georgian texts and the Armenian adaptation. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p. xxii-xxiii. ISBN 0198263732.
- Stephen H. Rapp. Studies in medieval Georgian historiography: early texts and Eurasian contexts. Peeters Publishers, 2003. ISBN 90-429-1318-5. P. 450. "There is also the claim advanced by Koriwn in his saintly biography of Mashtoc' (Mesrop) that the Georgian script had been invented at the direction of Mashtoc'. Yet it is within the realm of possibility that this tradition, repeated by many later Armenian historians, may not have been part of the original fifth-century text at all but added after 607. Significantly, all of the extant MSS containing The Life of Mashtoc* were copied centuries after the split. Consequently, scribal manipulation reflecting post-schism (especially anti-Georgian) attitudes potentially contaminates all MSS copied after that time. It is therefore conceivable, though not yet proven, that valuable information about Georgia trans¬mitted by pre-schism Armenian texts was excised by later, post-schism individuals."
- Greppin, John A.C.: Some comments on the origin of the Georgian alphabet. — Bazmavep 139, 1981, 449-456
- Nino Kemertelidze (1999). "The Origin of Kartuli (Georgian) Writing (Alphabet)". In David Cram, Andrew R. Linn, Elke Nowak. History of Linguistics 1996: Volume 1: Traditions in Linguistics Worldwide. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 228–. ISBN 978-90-272-8382-5. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Mzekala Shanidze (2000). "Greek influence in Georgian linguistics". In Sylvain Auroux et al. History of the Language Sciences / Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften / Histoire des sciences du langage. 1. Teilband. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 444–. ISBN 978-3-11-019400-5. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- ქსე, ტ. 7, თბ., 1984, გვ. 651-652
- შანიძე ა., ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტ. 2, გვ. 454-455, თბ., 1977 წელი
- კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 218-219
- ე. მაჭავარიანი, მწიგნობრობაჲ ქართული, თბილისი, 1989
- პ. ინგოროყვა, „შოთა რუსთაველი“, „მნათობი“, 1966, № 3, გვ. 116
- რ. პატარიძე, ქართული ასომთავრული, თბილისი, 1980, გვ. 151, 260-261
- ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 185-187
- ე. მაჭავარიანი, ქართული ანბანი, თბილისი, 1977, გვ. 5-6
- ელენე მაჭავარიანი, ენციკლოპედია „ქართული ენა“, თბილისი, 2008, გვ. 403-404
- ვ. სილოგავა, ენციკლოპედია „ქართული ენა“, თბილისი, 2008, გვ. 269-271
- ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 124-126
- ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული დამწერლობათა-მცოდნეობა ანუ პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1949, 127-128
- Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard, Richard Gillam, p.251
- Letras e Memória – Uma Breve História da Escrita, Adovaldo Fernandes Sampaio, p. 120
- Unicode standard, version 5.0, Julie D. Allen, p. 249
- Textual Research on the Psalms and Gospels / Recherches textuelles sur les psaumes et les évangiles: Papers from the Tbilisi Colloquium on the Editing and History of Biblical Manuscripts. Actes du Colloque de Tbilisi, 19-20 septembre 2007, Christian Amphoux, James Keith Elliott, p. 231
- Kalistrat Salia, History of the Georgian nation, N. Salia, p. 514, 1983
- კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 219
- გ. აბრამიშვილი, ატენის სიონის უცნობი წარწერები, "მაცნე" (ისტ. და არქეოლოგ. სერია), 1976, №2, გვ. 170
- კ. დანელია, ზ. სარჯველაძე, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, თბილისი, 1997, გვ. 218
- მაჭავარიანი ელ., ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტ. 7, გვ. 488, თბ., 1984 წელი.
- ე. მაჭავარიანი, ქართული ანბანი, თბილისი, 1977
- Unicode standard, version 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2007, p. 249
- თ. გამყრელიძე, წერის ანბანური სისტემა და ძველი ქართული დამწერლობა, თბილისი, 1990
- Gillam, Richard Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard p.252
- Julie D. Allen Unicode standard, version 5.0 p.249
- (Georgian) ილია მეორე ერს ქართული ენის დაცვისკენ კიდევ ერთხელ მოუწოდებს საქინფორმ.გე
- Writing Systems of the World, Akira Nakanishi, p. 22
- Georgica: A Journal of Georgian and Caucasian Studies, Issues 4-5, William Edward David Allen, A. Gugushvili, S. Austin and Sons, Limited, 1937, p. 324
- ატენის სიონის უცნობი წარწერები, აბრამიშვილი, გვ. 170-1
- The Languages of the World, Kenneth Katzner, p. 118
- Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge, Volume 5, Chambers, David Patrick, William Geddie, W. & R. Chambers, Limited, 1901, page 165
- T. Putkaradze, History of Georgian language, Development of the Georgian writing system, paragraph II, 2.1.5. 2006
- მაჭავარიანი, თბილისი, 1977
- used in writing very frequently
- The World's Writing Systems, Peter T. Daniels, The Georgian Alphabet, p. 367
- Howard Isaac Aronson, Georgian: A Reading Grammar, Slavica Publishers, 1990, p. 21-25
- Stefano Paolini, Nikoloz Cholokashvili, Dittionario giorgiano e italiano, Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, Rome, 1629
- Tamaz Mchedlidze, The Restored Georgian Alphabet, Fulda, Germany, 2013, p. 110
- Ingorokva, Pavle ქართული დამწერლობის ძეგლები ანტიკური ხანისა (The monuments of ancient Georgian script)
- Shanidze, Akaki (2003), ქართული ენა [The Georgian Language] (in Georgian), Tbilisi, ISBN 1-4020-1440-6
- შანიძე, 2003
- ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტ. 8, გვ. 231, თბ., 1984 წელი.
- Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard, Richard Gillam, p. 252
- Aronson (1990), pp. 30–31.
- Aronson (1990) depicts the two affricates as aspirated, though other scholars, like Shosted & Chikovani (2006) describe them as tenuis. The language does not contrast these possibilities.
- The Politics of Ethnic Separatism in Russia and Georgia, Julie A. George, p. 104
- The Abkhazians: A Handbook, George Hewitt, p. 171
- Язык, история и культура вайнахов, И. Ю Алироев p.85, Чех-Инг. изд.-полигр. об-ние "Книга", 1990
- Чеченский язык, И. Ю. Алироев, p.24, Академия, 1999
- Грузинско-дагестанские языковые контакты, Маджид Шарипович Халилов p.29, Наука, 2004
- История аварцев, М. Г Магомедов p.150, Дагестанский гос. университет, 2005
- Enwall, Joakim (2010), "Turkish texts in Georgian script: Sociolinguistic and ethno-linguistic aspects", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (eds.), Turcology in Mainz, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-06113-8, pp. 144–145
- Enwall, Joakim (2010), "Turkish texts in Georgian script: Sociolinguistic and ethno-linguistic aspects", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (eds.), Turcology in Mainz, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-06113-8, pp. 137–138
- უნიკოდში ქართულის ასახვის ისტორია (History of the Georgian Unicode) Georgian Unicode fonts by BPG-InfoTech
- Font Contributors Acknowledgements Unicode
- Georgian (QWERTY) Keyboard Layout Microsoft
- Aronson, Howard I. (1990), Georgian: a reading grammar (second ed.), Columbus, OH: Slavica
- Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
- Javakhishvili, I. Georgian palaeography Tbilisi, 1949
- Barnaveli, T. Inscriptions of Ateni Sioni Tbilisi, 1977
- Pataridze, R. Georgian Asomtavruli Tbilisi, 1980
- Machavariani, E. Graphics of the Georgian alphabet Tbilisi, 1982
- Gamkrelidze, T. Writing system and the old Georgian script Tbilisi, 1989
- Kilanawa, B. Georgian script in the writing systems Tbilisi, 1990
- Reference grammar of Georgian by Howard Aronson (SEELRC, Duke University)
- Georgian transliteration + Georgian virtual keyboard
- Direct transliteration Latin ↔ Georgian
- Georgian fonts, compliant with Unicode 4.0, also available for MAC OS 9 or X
- PDF (105 KB)
- PDF (105 KB)