Ángela Ruiz Robles

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Angela Ruiz Robles with her Mechanical Encyclopedia

Angela Ruiz Robles (born 1895 in Villamanín, Leon - died 1975 in Ferrol, A Coruña) was a Spanish teacher, writer and inventor, pioneer of the electronic book. In 1949, Ruiz filed the patent for her "Mechanical Encyclopedia" (Spanish: la Enciclopedia Mecánica).

Mechanical Encyclopedia[edit]

"Open, consists of two parts. In the left has a series of automatic spellers in all languages with a very slight pressure on a button displaying the letters you want, making words, phrases, lesson or topic and all kinds of writings. In the upper right spellers carried a coil with any kind of line drawing, and the left one with ornamental and figure drawing. In the bottom of the spellers, plastic to write, operate or draw. On the inside, a case for subjects. On the right are the subjects, passing under a transparent sheet, unbreakable and can take ownership increases, these books can be luminados light and no light to read them. To the right and left of the material through which pass two coils leads where to place the books you want to read in any language, by a movement of the same is passing all subjects, making the stops you want or is collected. The coils are automatic and can be moved from the case of the Encyclopedia and spread, leaving the whole subject in sight, you can be on a table (like actual books) or perpendicular, providing convenience to the reader, thereby avoiding many intellectual efforts and physical. All parts are replaceable. Complex, is the size of an ordinary book and simple operations. For authors and publishers the cost of his works is lessened considerably, requiring neither paste nor bound and is printed in a row, and each of their hand (or in several), this procedure resulting in the general good.[1]


Ruiz appears in the 2011 catalog "200 years of the enactment of the Patent Law in Spain" in the "Women" section, published by Ministry of Industry.[2]


  1. ^ Gaceta de la Actualidad Técnica. Year II, No. 14, September 1955
  2. ^ http://www.oepm.es/es/sobre_oepm/noticias/2011/2011_11_29_Catalogo200aniosDePatentes.html