|Grand Prince of the Magyars|
|Statue of Árpád|
|Reign||c. 895 – c. 907|
Árpád (c. 840 – c. 907) was the second Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Magyars) (c. 895 – c. 907). Under his rule the Hungarian people settled in the Carpathian basin. The dynasty descending from him ruled the Principality of Hungary and later the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301.
His life 
Árpád was the son of Grand Prince Álmos (Grand Prince of the Hungarians), leader of the Hungarian tribal federation; his mother's name and descent is unknown. The emergence of the Hungarian tribes and their leaders is a specific period in the history of the Hungarian people that refers to the time starting from when the Hungarians were considered a people separate and identifiable from other Ugric speakers (1000-500 BC) up until their occupation and settlement of the Carpathian Basin around 896 AD (Hungarian: Honfoglalás). According to Koestler the Onogurs were led by Prince Árpad, breaking part of the Khazars empire. Árpad led 10 tribes (Onogurs) in what was known as the second hun invasion in Europe. The ten tribes were: 3 tribes (Ság, Ladány, Berény-Tárkány) settled in Hungarian Transilvania plus 7 tribes (Megyer/Magyar/Madar/Madjar/Muageris, Jenő, Keszi, Nyék, Kér, Tarján, Kürt/Kubat/Kubrat) settled in Panonia.
In 894, Árpád and Kurszán negotiated together with the representatives of the Byzantine emperor, Leo VI the Wise the terms under which the confederation of the Hungarian tribes was willing to assist the Byzantine Empire against Emperor Simeon I of Bulgaria.
In the spring of next year, the Hungarian tribes attacked the Bulgarian Empire and defeated Emperor Simeon I, requiring him to conclude peace with the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Simeon, however, entered into an alliance with the Pechenegs, the eastern neighbours of the Hungarian tribal federation. They then made an attack against the Hungarian armies. In the Battle of Southern Buh, Emperor Simeon I defeated their army; shortly afterwards, the Pechenegs attacked and pillaged their territories. The Hungary tribes were required to leave Etelköz and move to the Carpathian Basin where they settled down (Honfoglalás).
In 896 the Hungarian tribes occupied the Upper Tisza river, from there they undertook numerous looting raids in central and western Europe, and in 900/901 they moved to Pannonia. The Hungarians entering the Pannonian fields in 896 may have represented about 200,000–250,000 people. He settled in what is now Hungary in about 900, though the Hungarians continued to ravage western Europe til their defeat by Emperor Otto I in 955.
Based on Arabic sources, Árpád's title seems to have been kende or gyula. In that time kende was the spiritual leader of the Hungarian tribes, while the gyula led their military campaigns. According to legends, Árpád held the first "parliamentary" session with 40 other "nobles" on horseback before 900 AD.
- Liüntika (Levente), Prince of Hungary ?, living 895
- Tarkatzus (Tarhos), the father of:
- Jelek (Üllő), "the Epicure", the father:
- Ezelekh (Ezeleg)
- Jutotzas (Jutas), the father of:
- Falitzi (Fajsz), Prince of Hungary (948-955), died c. 955
- Tas, living in 950
- Zoltán of Hungary (Solt) (? – c. 947)
- Taksony of Hungary (Taxis) (? – c. 972)
Although the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary was not Árpád (as he lived a century earlier) - but his descendant Saint Stephen I –, he is generally thought of as the forefather of Hungarians and is often affectionally mentioned as our father Árpád (Hungarian: Árpád apánk). Árpád was the founder of the dynasty named after him, which would rule over the kingdom of Hungary till 1301.
In popular culture 
See also 
- Michael David Harkavy, The new Webster's international encyclopedia: the new illustrated reference guide, Trident Press International, 1998, p. 70
- Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század) (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History - 9-14th centuries). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 753. ISBN 963-05-6722-9
- The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and its Heritage, Koestler, Arthur
- Attila and the Nomad Hordes; Nicolle, David; McBride, Angus
- The Byzantine De administrando imperio says around 950: Prior to this Árpád, the Hungarians did never have another ruling prince ('archont') and since then up to today the ruling prince of Hungary has been from that family. However, his father was probably proclaimed Grand Prince around 855.
- It is remarkable that Árpád was never mentioned by contemporary Western sources, which strengthens the idea that he was the spiritual ruler of the Hungarians.
- Some scholars consider Kende to be the name of a person.
- Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996)
- Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
- Kristó, Gyula: A Kárpát-medence és a magyarság régmúltja (1301-ig) (Szegedi Középkortörténeti Könyvtár, Szeged, 1993)
- Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)
- Marek, Miroslav. "arpad/arpad1.html". Genealogy.EU.[self-published source][better source needed]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Árpád|
ÁrpádBorn: c. 845 Died: c. 907
|Grand Prince of the Magyars
c. 895 – c. 907