Émile Loubet

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Émile Loubet
Émile Loubet by Paul Nadar c1900.jpg
8th President of France
In office
18 February 1899 – 18 February 1906
Prime Minister Charles Dupuy
Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Émile Combes
Maurice Rouvier
Preceded by Félix Faure
Succeeded by Armand Fallières
Co-Prince of Andorra
In office
18 February 1899 – 18 February 1906
Served with Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Ramon Riu i Cabanes, Toribio Martín, and Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera
Preceded by Félix Faure
Succeeded by Armand Fallières
Prime Minister of France
In office
27 February 1892 – 6 December 1892
President Marie François Sadi Carnot
Preceded by Charles de Freycinet
Succeeded by Alexandre Ribot
Personal details
Born 31 December 1838
Marsanne, France
Died 20 December 1929
Montélimar, France
Political party Democratic Republican Alliance

Émile François Loubet (French: [emil lubɛ]; December 31, 1838 – December 20, 1929) was the 8th President of France.

Trained in law, he became Mayor of Montélimar, where he was noted as a forceful orator. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and the Senate in 1885. He was appointed as a Republican minister under Carnot and Ribot. He was briefly Prime Minister of France in 1892. As President (1899–1906), his term of office saw the successful Paris Exhibition of 1900, and the forging of the Entente with Great Britain, resolving their sharp differences over the Boer War and the Dreyfus Affair.

Early life[edit]

Loubet was born on December 31, 1838, the son of a peasant proprietor and mayor of Marsanne (Drôme). Admitted to the Parisian bar in 1862, he took his doctorate in law the next year. He was still a student when he witnessed the sweeping triumph of the Republican party in Paris at the general election in 1863, during the Second French Empire. He settled down to the exercise of his profession in Montélimar, where in 1869 he married Marie-Louise Picard. He also inherited a small estate at Grignan.

Political career[edit]

At the crisis of 1870, which brought about the Empire's end, he became mayor of Montélimar, and thenceforward was a steady supporter of Léon Gambetta. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 by Montélimar, he was one of the famous 363 who on 16 May 1877 (Seize Mai) passed the vote of no confidence in the ministry of the duc de Broglie.

In the general election of October he was re-elected, local enthusiasm for him being increased by the fact that the government had driven him from the mayoralty. In the Chamber he occupied himself especially with education, fighting the clerical system established by the Loi Falloux, and working for the establishment of free, obligatory and secular primary instruction. In 1880 he became president of the departmental council in Drôme. His support of the second Jules Ferry ministry and his zeal for the colonial expansion of France gave him considerable weight in the moderate Republican party.

He had entered the Senate in 1885, and he became minister of public works in the Tirard ministry (December 1887 to March 1888). In 1892 President Sadi Carnot, who was his personal friend, asked him to form a cabinet. Loubet held the portfolio of the interior with the premiership, and had to deal with the anarchist crimes of that year and with the great strike of Carmaux, in which he acted as arbitrator, giving a decision regarded in many quarters as too favourable to the strikers. He was defeated in November on the question of the Panama scandals, but he retained the ministry of the interior in the next cabinet under Alexandre Ribot, though he resigned on its reconstruction in January.

President of the French Republic (1899–1906)[edit]

His reputation as an orator of great force and lucidity of exposition and as a safe and honest statesman procured for him in 1896 the presidency of the Senate, and in February 1899 he was chosen president of the republic in succession to Félix Faure by 483 votes as against 279 recorded by Jules Méline, his only serious competitor.

Loubet caricatured by Guth for Vanity Fair, 1899

He was marked out for fierce opposition and bitter insult, as the representative of that section of the Republican party which sought the revision of the Dreyfus affair. On the day of President Faure's funeral Paul Déroulède met the troops under General Roget on their return to barracks, and demanded that the general should march on the Elysée. Roget sensibly took his troops back to barracks. At the Auteuil steeplechase in June, the president was struck on the head with a cane by an anti-Dreyfusard. In that month President Loubet summoned Waldeck-Rousseau to form a cabinet, and at the same time entreated Republicans of all shades of opinion to rally to the defence of the state. By the efforts of Loubet and Waldeck-Rousseau the Dreyfus affair was settled, when Loubet, acting on the advice of General Galliffet, minister of war, remitted the ten years' imprisonment to which Dreyfus was condemned at Rennes.

Loubet's presidency saw an acute stage of the clerical question, which was attacked by Waldeck-Rousseau and in still more drastic fashion by the Combes ministry. The French ambassador was recalled from the Vatican in April, 1905, and in July the separation of church and state was voted in the Chamber of Deputies. Feeling had run high between France and Britain over the mutual criticisms passed on the conduct of the South African War and the Dreyfus affair respectively. These differences were composed, by the Anglo-French entente, and in 1904 a convention between the two countries secured the recognition of French claims in Morocco in exchange for non-interference with the British occupation of Egypt. President Loubet belonged to the peasant-proprietor class, and had none of the aristocratic proclivities of President Faure. He inaugurated the Paris Exhibition of 1900, received the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in September 1901 and paid a visit to Russia in 1902.

On July 4, 1902 President Loubet was elected an honorary member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.

Loubet also exchanged visits with King Edward VII, with the king of Portugal, the king of Italy and the king of Spain. During the king of Spain's visit in 1905, an attempt was made on his life, a bomb being thrown under his carriage as he was proceeding with his guest from the Opéra Garnier to the Palais d'Orsay.[1][2] When his presidency came to an end in January 1906, he became the first President of the Third Republic to have served a full term and without resigning a second one. He retired into private life and died on December 20, 1929 at the age of 90.

Loubet’s Ministry, 27 February – 6 December 1892[edit]

Changes

  • 8 March 1892 – Godefroy Cavaignac succeeds Roche as Minister for the Colonies. Roche remains Minister of Commerce and Industry.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bomb for Loubet and King Alfonso New York Times 1 June 1905 page 1
  2. ^ Error: The New York Times article does in fact read "Palais d'Orsay", however that building had burnt down in 1871.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Charles de Freycinet
Prime Minister of France
1892
Succeeded by
Alexandre Ribot
Preceded by
Félix Faure
President of France
1899–1906
Succeeded by
Armand Fallières