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Évolué is a French term (literally, evolved or developed) used in the colonial era to refer to native Africans and Asians who had "evolved", through education or assimilation, and accepted European values and patterns of behavior. Évolués spoke French, followed French laws, usually held white-collar jobs (although rarely higher than clerks), and lived primarily in urban areas. Such individuals were seen as the desired end product of France's assimilation policy. Évolués were treated as an elite and privileged group by the colonial administrators.

It was also used to describe the growing native middle class in the Belgian Congo in the years leading up to independence.

See also[edit]


  • DeLancey, Mark W., and DeLancey, Mark Dike (2000): Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon (3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.