Île-de-France

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For other uses, see Île-de-France (disambiguation).
Île-de-France
Region of France
Official logo of Île-de-France
Logo
Île-de-France in France.svg
Country  France
Prefecture Paris
Departments
Government
 • President Jean-Paul Huchon (PS)
Area
 • Total 12,012 km2 (4,638 sq mi)
Population (Jan. 2013)[1]
 • Total 11,978,363
 • Density 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code FR-J
GDP (2012)[2] Ranked 1st
Total €612.3 billion (US$787.6 bn)
Per capita €51,250 (US$65,918)
NUTS Region FR1
Website www.iledefrance.fr

Île-de-France (French pronunciation: [ildəfʁɑ̃s] ( )) (literally "Island of France"; see the Etymology section) is the wealthiest and most populated of the twenty-seven administrative regions of France. Created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961, it was renamed after the historic province of Île-de-France in 1976 when its administrative status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Despite the name change, Île-de-France is still popularly referred to by French people as the Région Parisienne ("Paris Region" in English[3][4]) or RP. It is almost completely covered by the Paris metropolitan area. The region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Essonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines.

With 12 million inhabitants,[1] increasingly referred to as "Franciliens", an administrative word created in the 1980s, Île-de-France is not only the most populated region of France, but also has more residents than Austria, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Portugal, Norway, or Sweden, with a population comparable to that of the U.S. state of Ohio or to that of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the fourth most populous country subdivision in the European Union, after England, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Bavaria.

Economically, Île-de-France is the world's fourth-largest and Europe's wealthiest and largest regional economy: in 2012, its total GDP as calculated by INSEE was 612 billion[2] (US$788 billion at market exchange rates). If it were a country, it would rank as the eighteenth-largest economy in the world, larger than the Dutch economy and nearly the same size as the Turkish economy.[5] Île-de-France is also the world's second most important location for Fortune Global 500 companies' headquarters[6] (after the Kantō region).

Etymology[edit]

Although the modern name "Île-de-France" clearly means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear. The "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise, Marne and Seine, or it may also have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, in which case "Island of France" was originally a pars pro toto or perhaps a metonym.

Yet another possibility is that the term is a corruption of a hypothesized Frankish language term "Liddle Franke" meaning "Little France" or "little Frankish land", so the modern reference to an "island" may be coincidental. However, this theory might be anachronistic, since the name "L'Île-de-France" (including the definite article) is not documented prior to 1387.

History[edit]

Royal flag, sometimes used unofficially as a flag for the Region[7]

The province, also known as Isle of France (as it was once written, as sometimes in English, especially in old publications), is a historical province of France, and the one at the centre of power during most of French history. The historical province is centred on Paris, the seat of the Crown of France, but it corresponds to the present-day région Île-de-France. The area around Paris was the original personal domain of the king of France, as opposed to areas ruled by feudal lords of whom he was the suzerain. This is reflected by divisions such as the Véxin Français and the Véxin Normand, the former being within the King of France's domain, the latter being within the Duke of Normandy's fief.

The old provinces were abolished during the French Revolution in the late 18th century. The region was reconstituted in 1976 and increased administrative and political powers devolved in the process of regionalisation in the 1980s and 1990s.

The historical Île-de-France

Geography[edit]

Nature of Île-de-France: view of Fontainebleau Forest.

Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi). It is composed of eight departments centered around its innermost department and capital, Paris. Around the department of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments commonly known as the petite couronne ("small ring"), and extends into a second outer ring of four departments known as the grande couronne ("large ring"). The former department of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne.

The petite couronne consists of the departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne, and the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines, Essonne, and Val-d'Oise.

The river Seine also runs through the region. The Seine has many tributaries which include the rivers Oise and Aube. The river Seine has its mouth in the English channel and has its source in the 'Massif central'. It is France's second largest river after the Loire. The region is in an area of lowland called the Paris basin. South of the region lie the Massif-central, an area of highlands that are higher than normal, but far lower than the Alps.

The climate of the region is quite similar to those of England and western Germany, except that it has warmer summers and milder winters than England, and receives less rain than England does.

Île-de-France is as an engine of the global economy: the skyscrapers of La Défense (in the background), the largest purpose-built business district of Europe, with 3.35 million m2 (36 million sq. ft) of office space.[8]

Economy[edit]

The GDP of the Île-de-France is the largest of NUTS-1 Regions in the European Union and is third per Capita after Luxembourg and Brussels. Paris with 2.2 million inhabitants with a GDP per Capita of €75,000.[9]

Politics[edit]

The Regional Council is the legislative body of the region. Its seat is in Paris, at 33 rue Barbet-de-Jouy in the 7th arrondissement. Since 1998, it is presided by the Socialist Jean-Paul Huchon.

Holders of the executive office[edit]

Seat of the regional council of Île-de-France in Paris (2008)

Demographics[edit]

Paris's demographic development, represented by the Paris Metropolitan Area, fills most of the Île-de-France: its central built-up area, or pôle urbain ("urban cluster"[10]) extends beyond the Île-de-France's inner three petite couronne departments, and this is surrounded by a commuter belt "rim"[11] that extends beyond the Region's four outer grande couronne departments in places.

Departments of Île-de-France and their populations (INSEE 2011 census)
Paris metropolitan area.gif
concentric area department population
(Jan. 2011 estimate)[12]
area population
density
annual
pop. growth
2006–2011[12]
the centre Paris (75) 2,249,975 105 km² 21,428/km² +0.62%
the inner ring
(petite couronne)
Hauts-de-Seine (92) 1,581,628 176 km² 8,987/km² +0.59%
Seine-Saint-Denis (93) 1,529,928 236 km² 6,483/km² +0.50%
Val-de-Marne (94) 1,333,702 245 km² 5,444/km² +0.54%
subtotal for the inner ring 4,445,258 657 km² 6,766/km² +0.54%
the outer ring
(grande couronne)
Seine-et-Marne (77) 1,338,427 5,915 km² 226/km² +1.00%
Yvelines (78) 1,413,635 2,284 km² 619/km² +0.25%
Essonne (91) 1,225,191 1,804 km² 679/km² +0.45%
Val-d'Oise (95) 1,180,365 1,246 km² 947/km² +0.40%
subtotal for the outer ring 5,157,618 11,249 km² 458/km² +0.52%
Total   11,852,851 12,011 km² 987/km² +0.55%

Petite Couronne[edit]

"Petite Couronne" redirects here. For the municipality in Upper Normandy, see Petit-Couronne.
Map of the Petite Couronne with Paris
Locator map showing the municipalities in which the Petite Couronne is divided. Paris is divided into its 20 arrondissements

The Petite Couronne[13] (Little Crown, i.e. Inner Ring) is the hub of the urban agglomeration of Paris. It is formed by the 3 departments of Île-de-France bordering with the French capital and forming a geographical crown around it. The departments, until 1968 part of the disbanded Seine department, are Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne. The most populated towns of the Petite Couronne are Boulogne-Billancourt, Montreuil, Saint-Denis, Nanterre and Créteil.

The table below shows some statistical information about the area including Paris:

Department Area (km²) Population[12] Municipalities
Paris (75)
105.4
2,249,975
1 (Paris)
Hauts-de-Seine (92)
176
1,581,628
Seine-Saint-Denis (93)
236
1,529,928
Val-de-Marne (94)
245
1,333,702
Petite Couronne
657
4,445,258
123
Paris + Petite Couronne
762.4
6,695,233
124

Grande Couronne[edit]

The Grande Couronne[14] (Greater Crown, i.e. Outer Ring) includes the towns of the metropolitan area part of the other 4 departments of Île-de-France not bordering with Paris. They are Seine-et-Marne (77), Yvelines (78), Essonne (91) and Val-d'Oise (95). The latter three departments formed the Seine-et-Oise department until this was disbanded in 1968. The city of Versailles is part of this area.

Historical population[edit]

Population of Île-de-France
1801
census
1806
census
1821
census
1826
census
1831
census
1836
census
1841
census
1846
census
1851
census
1856
census
1861
census
1866
census
1,352,280 1,407,272 1,549,811 1,780,900 1,707,181 1,882,354 1,998,862 2,180,100 2,239,695 2,552,980 2,819,045 3,039,043
1872
census
1876
census
1881
census
1886
census
1891
census
1896
census
1901
census
1906
census
1911
census
1921
census
1926
census
1931
census
3,141,730 3,320,162 3,726,118 3,934,314 4,126,932 4,368,656 4,735,580 4,960,310 5,335,220 5,682,598 6,146,178 6,705,579
1936
census
1946
census
1954
census
1962
census
1968
census
1975
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2006
census
2011
census
2013
estimate
6,785,750 6,597,758 7,317,063 8,470,015 9,248,631 9,878,565 10,073,059 10,660,554 10,952,011 11,532,398 11,852,851 11,978,363
Census returns until 2011; official January estimates from INSEE from 2012 on.

Immigration[edit]

2010 Census Paris Region[15][16]
Country/territory of birth Population
France Metropolitan France 9,078,457
Algeria Algeria 282,418
Portugal Portugal 241,915
Morocco Morocco 222,404
Tunisia Tunisia 105,458
Flag of Guadeloupe (local).svg Guadeloupe 80,377
Flag of Martinique.svg Martinique 75,039
Turkey Turkey 68,193
China China 58,329
Italy Italy 55,850
Mali Mali 53,799
Spain Spain 46,765

Paris and the Île-de-France region is a magnet for immigrants, hosting one of the largest concentrations of immigrants in Europe. As of 2006, about 35% of people (4 million) living in the region were either immigrant (17%) or born to at least one immigrant parent (18%).[17]

At the 2010 census, 23.0% of the total population in the Île-de-France region were born outside of Metropolitan France, up from 19.7% at the 1999 census.[18]

International relations[edit]

Twin regions[edit]

Île-de-France is twinned with:

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013". Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  2. ^ a b INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012". Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  3. ^ "English verion of the regional council's Economic Development Agency website". Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  4. ^ "English verion of the regional tourist office website". Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  5. ^ World Bank. "Gross domestic product 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  6. ^ Global 500 by Country Fortune
  7. ^ The flag is the France Moderne coat of arms (a simplified version of the France Ancien reduced the number of fleurs-de-lis to three), emblem of the French Monarchy, symbole of Île-de-France's prominence
  8. ^ (French) Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Contribution des CCI de Paris – Île-de-France à la révision du SDRIF, page 110. "TEM Paris – La Défense – QCA" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  9. ^ (French) GDP per capita of french departments in 2005 ranks second in Europe after
  10. ^ INSEE - Definitions and Methods - Pôle Urbain
  11. ^ INSEE - Definitions and Methods - Couronne
  12. ^ a b c (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par département, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2011". Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  13. ^ (French) CIG "Petite Couronne" website (Centre Interdépartemental de Gestion)
  14. ^ (French) CIG "Grande Couronne" website (Centre Interdépartemental de Gestion)
  15. ^ (French) "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010". INSEE. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  16. ^ (French) "IMG1B - Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance (Pays de naissance détaillé)". INSEE. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  17. ^ Les descendants d'immigrés vivant en Île-de-France, IAU Idf, Note rapide Société, n° 531
  18. ^ (French) "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010". INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  19. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 48°30′N 2°30′E / 48.500°N 2.500°E / 48.500; 2.500