|Region of France|
|• President||Jean-Paul Huchon (PS)|
|• Total||12,012 km2 (4,638 sq mi)|
|Population (Jan. 2013)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||FR-J|
|GDP (2012)||Ranked 1st|
|Total||€612.3 billion (US$787.6 bn)|
|Per capita||€51,250 (US$65,918)|
Île-de-France (French pronunciation: [ildəfʁɑ̃s] ( )) (literally "Isle of France"; see the Etymology section) is the wealthiest and most populated of the twenty-seven administrative regions of France. Created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961, it was renamed after the historic province of Île-de-France in 1976 when its administrative status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Despite the name change, Île-de-France is sometimes referred to by French people as the Région Parisienne ("Parisian Region") or RP. It is almost completely covered by the Paris metropolitan area.
With 12.0 million inhabitants, increasingly referred to as "Franciliens", an administrative word created in the 1980s, Île-de-France is not only the most populated region of France, but also has more residents than Austria, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Portugal, Norway or Sweden, with a population comparable to that of the U.S. state of Ohio or to that of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the fourth most populous country subdivision in the European Union, after England, North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria.
Economically, Île-de-France is the world's fourth-largest and Europe's wealthiest and largest regional economy: in 2012, its total GDP as calculated by INSEE was €612 billion (US$788 billion at market exchange rates). If it were a country, it would rank as the eighteenth-largest economy in the world, larger than the Dutch economy and nearly the same size as the Turkish economy. Île-de-France is also the world's second most important location for Fortune Global 500 companies' headquarters (after the Kantō region).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Politics
- 7 International relations
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 External links
Although the modern name "Île-de-France" clearly means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear. The "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise, Marne and Seine, or it may also have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, in which case "Island of France" was originally a pars pro toto or perhaps a metonym.
Yet another possibility is that the term is a corruption of a hypothesized Frankish language term "Liddle Franke" meaning "Little France" or "little Frankish land", so the modern reference to an "island" may be coincidental. However, this theory might be anachronistic, since the name "L'Île-de-France" (including the definite article) is not documented prior to 1387.
The province, also known as Isle of France (as it was once written, as sometimes in English, especially in old publications) is a historical province of France, and the one at the centre of power during most of French history. The historical province is centred on Paris, the seat of the Crown of France, but it does correspond to the present-day région Île-de-France. The area around Paris was the original personal domain of the king of France, as opposed to areas ruled by feudal lords of whom he was the suzerain. This is reflected by divisions such as the Véxin Français and the Véxin Normand, the former being within the King of France's domain, the latter being within the Duke of Normandy's fief.
The old provinces were abolished during the French Revolution in the late 18th century. The region was reconstituted in 1976 and increased administrative and political powers devolved in the process of regionalisation in the 1980s and 1990's.
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi). It is composed of eight departments centered around its innermost department and capital, Paris. Around the department of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments commonly known as the petite couronne ("small ring"), and extends into a second outer ring of four departments known as the grande couronne ("large ring"). The former department of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne.
The river Seine also runs through the region. The Seine has many tributaries which include the rivers Oise and Aube. The river Seine has its mouth in the English channel and has its source in the 'Massif central'. It is France's second largest river after the Loire. The region is in an area of lowland called the Paris basin. South of the region lies the Massif-central, an area of highlands that are higher than normal, but far lower than the Alps.
The climate of the region is quite similar to those of England and western Germany, except that it has warmer summers and milder winters than England, and receives less rain than England does.
Paris' demographic development, represented by the Paris Metropolitan Area, fills most of the Île-de-France: its central built-up area, or pôle urbain ("urban cluster") extends beyond the Île-de-France's inner three petite couronne departments, and this is surrounded by a commuter belt "rim" that extends beyond the Region's four outer grande couronne departments in places.
(Jan. 2011 estimate)
|the centre||Paris (75)||2,249,975||105 km²||21,428/km²||+0.62%|
|the inner ring
|Hauts-de-Seine (92)||1,581,628||176 km²||8,987/km²||+0.59%|
|Seine-Saint-Denis (93)||1,529,928||236 km²||6,483/km²||+0.50%|
|Val-de-Marne (94)||1,333,702||245 km²||5,444/km²||+0.54%|
|subtotal for the inner ring||4,445,258||657 km²||6,766/km²||+0.54%|
|the outer ring
|Seine-et-Marne (77)||1,338,427||5,915 km²||226/km²||+1.00%|
|Yvelines (78)||1,413,635||2,284 km²||619/km²||+0.25%|
|Essonne (91)||1,225,191||1,804 km²||679/km²||+0.45%|
|Val-d'Oise (95)||1,180,365||1,246 km²||947/km²||+0.40%|
|subtotal for the outer ring||5,157,618||11,249 km²||458/km²||+0.52%|
The Petite Couronne (Little Crown, i.e. Inner Ring) is the hub of the urban agglomeration of Paris. It is formed by the 3 departments of Île-de-France bordering with the French capital and forming a geographical crown around it. The departments, until 1968 part of the disbanded Seine department, are Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne. The most populated towns of the Petite Couronne are Boulogne-Billancourt, Montreuil, Saint-Denis, Nanterre and Créteil.
The table below shows some statistical information about the area including Paris:
|Paris + Petite Couronne||
The Grande Couronne (Greater Crown, i.e. Outer Ring) includes the towns of the metropolitan area part of the other 4 departments of Île-de-France not bordering with Paris. They are Seine-et-Marne (77), Yvelines (78), Essonne (91) and Val-d'Oise (95). The latter three departments formed the Seine-et-Oise department until this was disbanded in 1968. The city of Versailles is part of this area.
|Census returns until 2011; official January estimates from INSEE from 2012 on.|
|Census||Born in Île-de-France||Born in the rest of
|Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth[a]
|from Europe||from the Maghreb[c]||from the rest of Africa||from the rest of the world|
|from Europe||from the Maghreb[c]||from the rest of Africa||from the rest of the world|
|^a Persons born abroad of one or two French parents, such as Pieds-Noirs, children of French expatriates, and children of dual-citizens.
^b An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
^c Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia
|2010 Census Ile-de-France|
|Country/territory of birth||Population|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||39,423|
|Republic of the Congo||32,917|
|Other countries and territories||802,655|
Paris and the Île-de-France region is a magnet for immigrants, hosting one of the largest concentrations of immigrants in Europe. As of 2006, about 35% of people (4 million) living in the region were either immigrant (17%) or born to at least one immigrant parent (18%).
If the region, primary seat of French political and economic power for centuries, has always attracted immigrants, modern immigration can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century when France emerged as an immigration destination with Eastern European Jews fleeing persecutions, and Southern Europeans (mostly Italians) and Belgians seeking better economic conditions. During the first half of the 20th century, immigrants were mostly Europeans, but after decolonisation, and during the French post-war economic boom, many immigrants came from former French colonies (chiefly the Magreb and West Africa). At the 2010 census, 23.0% of the total population in the Île-de-France region were born outside of Metropolitan France, up from 19.7% at the 1999 census.
Among these people born outside Metropolitan France, 1,611,989 were immigrants (see definition below the table), making up 14.7% of the region's total population. INSEE estimated that on 1 January 2005, the number of immigrants in the region had reached 1,916,000, making up 16.7% of its total population. This is an increase of 304,000 immigrants in slightly less than six years.
According to a study in 2009, nearly 56% of all newborns in the region in 2007 had at least one parent originated from sub-Saharan Africa, Turkey, Maghreb or Overseas departments and territories of France.
People under 18 of foreign origin
People under 18 of Maghrebi, sub-Saharan and Turkish origin became a majority in several cities of the region (Clichy-sous-Bois, Mantes-la-Jolie, Grigny, Saint-Denis, Les Mureaux, Saint-Ouen, Sarcelles, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Garges-lès-Gonesse, Aubervilliers, Stains, Gennevilliers et Épinay-sur-Seine). Young people of Maghrebi origin comprised about 12% of the population of the region, 22% of that of département of the Seine-Saint-Denis district, and 37% of the 18th arrondissement of Paris. In Grigny, 31% of young people are of sub-Saharan origin
|% people under 18 (2005)||Seine-Saint-Denis||Paris||Val-de-Marne||Val-d'Oise||France|
The GDP of the Île-de-France is the largest of NUTS-1 Regions in the European Union and is third per Capita after Luxembourg and Brussels. Paris with 2.2 million inhabitants with a GDP per Capita of €75,000.
The Regional Council is the legislative body of the region. Its seat is in Paris, at 33 rue Barbet-de-Jouy in the 7th arrondissement. Since 1998, it is presided by the Socialist Jean-Paul Huchon.
Holders of the executive office
- Delegates General for the District of the Paris Region
- Presidents of the Regional Council of Île-de-France
Île-de-France is twinned with:
Notes and references
- (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013". Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012". Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- World Bank. "Gross domestic product 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- Global 500 by Country Fortune
- The flag is the France Moderne coat of arms (a simplified version of the France Ancien reduced the number of fleurs-de-lis to three), emblem of the French Monarchy, symbole of Île-de-France's prominence
- INSEE - Definitions and Methods - Pôle Urbain
- INSEE - Definitions and Methods - Couronne
- (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par département, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2011". Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- (French) CIG "Petite Couronne" website (Centre Interdépartemental de Gestion)
- (French) CIG "Grande Couronne" website (Centre Interdépartemental de Gestion)
- (French) INSEE. "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010". Retrieved 2013-12-01.
- (French) INSEE. "IMG1B – Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance". Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- (French) INSEE. "D_FD_IMG2 – Base France par départements – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité". Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- (French) "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010". INSEE. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- (French) "IMG1B - Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance (Pays de naissance détaillé)". INSEE. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Les descendants d'immigrés vivant en Île-de-France, IAU Idf, Note rapide Société, n° 531
- Large and dynamic economy with high human rights standards (and extensive social benefits after 1945) and a tradition of assimilation, France has widely been seen as a magnet for immigrants
- (French) "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2010". INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- (French) INSEE, Government of France. "IMG2 – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité". Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Tableau de synthèse sur le nombre d'étrangers et d'immigrés" (XLS). Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Bardakdjian-Michau J, Bahuau M, Hurtrel D, et al. (January 2009). "Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in France". J. Clin. Pathol. 62 (1): 31–3. doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.058867. PMID 19103855.
- Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°127
- Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
- Michèle Tribalat, Immigration et démographie des pays d’accueil, in Christophe Jaffrelot et Christian Lequesne L'Enjeu mondial, Presses de Sciences Po | Annuels 2009, pages 29 à 35
- Michèle Tribalat, Michèle Tribalat : "L'islam reste une menace", Le Monde, 13 octobre 2011
- (French) Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Contribution des CCI de Paris – Île-de-France à la révision du SDRIF, page 110. "TEM Paris – La Défense – QCA" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
- (French) GDP per capita of french departments in 2005 ranks second in Europe after
- "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Île-de-France.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Île-de-France.|
- Econovista, The interactive economic map of Paris Region
- Regional Council of Île-de-France (French)
- Île-de-France on the Open Directory Project