Ogonek

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For the periodical, see Ogoniok.
̨
Ogonek
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ą ą
Ą̊ ą̊
Ę ę
Į į
Ǫ ǫ
Ǭ ǭ
Ų ų

The ogonek (Polish: [ɔˈɡɔnɛk], "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; Lithuanian: nosinė) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

Ogonek

Use[edit]

Example in Polish:

Wół go pyta: „Panie chrząszczu,
Po co pan tak brzęczy w gąszczu?“
Jan Brzechwa, Chrząszcz

Example in Cayuga:

Ęyǫgwędę́hte⁷ — we will become poor

Example in Dogrib:

dǫ sǫǫ̀łįį — native people

Example in Lithuanian:

Lydėdami gęstančią žarą vėlai
Pakilo į dangų margi sakalai
Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, Margi sakalai

Example in Elfdalian:

"Ja, eð war įe plåg að gęslkallum, dar eð war slaik uondlostjyner i gęslun."
— Vikar Margit Andersdotter, I fäbodlivet i gamla tider.

Values[edit]

Nasalization[edit]

The use of the ogonek to indicate nasality is common in the transcription of the indigenous languages of the Americas. This usage originated in the orthographies created by Christian missionaries to transcribe these languages. Later, the practice was continued by Americanist anthropologists and linguists who still follow this convention in phonetic transcription to the present day (see Americanist phonetic notation).

The ogonek is also used in academic transliteration of Old Church Slavonic. In Polish, Old Church Slavonic, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Tłįchǫ Yatiì, Slavey, Dëne Sųłiné and Dalecarlian it indicates that the vowel is nasalized. Even if ę is nasalized e in Polish, ą is nasalized o not a (this is so because of the vowel change — "ą" was a long nasal "a", which turned into short nasal "o", when the vowel quantity distinction disappeared).

Length[edit]

In Lithuanian, it formerly indicated nasalization but is no longer distinctive and indicates that a vowel is long. The Lithuanian word for "ogonek" is nosinė, which literally means "nasal".

Openness[edit]

In Rheinische Dokumenta, it marks vowels which are more open than those denoted by their base letters Ää, Oo, Öö. Here it can be combined with umlaut marks in two cases.

Similar diacritics[edit]

E caudata and o caudata[edit]

The E caudata (ę), a symbol similar to an e with ogonek, evolved from a ligature of a and e in medieval scripts, in Latin and Irish palaeography. The O caudata of Old Norse[3] (letter ǫ, with ǫ́)[4][5] is used to write the open-mid back rounded vowel, /ɔ/. Medieval Nordic manuscripts show this "hook" in both directions, in combination with several vowels.[6] Despite this distinction, the term "ogonek" is sometimes used in discussions of typesetting and encoding Norse texts, as o caudata is typographically identical to o with ogonek.

Cedilla and comma[edit]

The ogonek is functionally equivalent to the cedilla and comma diacritics. If two of these three are used within the same orthography their respective use is restricted to certain classes of letters, i.e. usually the ogonek is used with vowels whereas the cedilla is applied to consonants. In handwritten text the marks may even look the same.

Typographical notes[edit]

Difference between the correct placement of the ogonek in European languages (left) and Native American languages (right)

The ogonek should be almost the same size as a descender (in larger type sizes may be relatively quite shorter) and should not be confused with the cedilla or comma diacritic marks used in other languages.

When used for Native American languages, the ogonek should be placed directly under the letter rather than to the side as is the norm for European languages. European-style placement is acceptable when no other alternatives are available.

Encoding[edit]

Character ˛ ̨ Ą ą
Unicode name OGONEK COMBINING OGONEK LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH OGONEK LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH OGONEK
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 731 U+02DB 808 U+0328 260 U+0104 261 U+0105
UTF-8 203 155 CB 9B 204 168 CC A8 196 132 C4 84 196 133 C4 85
Numeric character reference ˛ ˛ ̨ ̨ Ą Ą ą ą
Character Į į Ų ų
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH OGONEK LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH OGONEK LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH OGONEK LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH OGONEK
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 302 U+012E 303 U+012F 370 U+0172 371 U+0173
UTF-8 196 174 C4 AE 196 175 C4 AF 197 178 C5 B2 197 179 C5 B3
Numeric character reference Į Į į į Ų Ų ų ų
Character Ę ę Ǫ ǫ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH OGONEK LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH OGONEK LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH OGONEK LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH OGONEK
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 280 U+0118 281 U+0119 490 U+01EA 491 U+01EB
UTF-8 196 152 C4 98 196 153 C4 99 199 170 C7 AA 199 171 C7 AB
Numeric character reference Ę Ę ę ę Ǫ Ǫ ǫ ǫ
ISO 8859-2 / ISO 8859-4 202 CA 234 EA
ISO 8859-10 221 DD 253 FD

LaTeX2e[edit]

In LaTeX2e, macro \k will typeset a letter with ogonek, if it is supported by the font encoding, e.g. \k{a} will typeset ą. (The default LaTeX OT1 encoding does not support it, but the newer T1 one does. It may be enabled by saying \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} in the preamble.)

However, \k{e} rather places the diacritic "right-aligned" with the carrying e (ę), suitably for Polish, while \textogonekcentered horizontally centers the diacritic with respect to the carrier, suitably for Native American Languages as well as for e caudata and o caudata. So \textogonekcentered{e} better fits the latter purposes. Actually, \k{o} (for ǫ) is defined to result in \textogonekcentered{o}, and \k{O} is defined to result in \textogonekcentered{O}.[7]

The package TIPA, activated by using the command "\usepackage{tipa}", offers a different way: "\textpolhook{a}" will produce ą.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gwich’in alphabet PDF, Yukon Native Language Centre
  2. ^ "Hoocąk Waaziija Haci Language Division". Mauston, Wisconsin: Ho-Chunk Nation. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  3. ^ For this traditional and correct name, see e.g. Einar Haugen (ed. and trans.), First Grammatical Treatise, 2nd edition, Longman, 1972.
  4. ^ "Non-European and historic Latin". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  5. ^ by Sebastian Kempgen, University of Bamberg, Germany
  6. ^ "Medieval Unicode Font Initiative". Gandalf.aksis.uib.no. 2003-02-05. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  7. ^ See t1enc.def in LaTeX2e distributions.

External links[edit]