Geologically the range is part of the Outer Western Carpathians, but may be classified (as Slovaks do) as part of the Eastern Beskids, or classified (as Poles do) as part of the Western Beskids. The Polish name for the range is Góry Czerchowskie, the Czerchów Mountains.
The entire range is composed of Carpathian flysch and is oriented from north to southeast. The major peaks include Minčol (1157 m), Veľká Javorina (1098 m), Bukový vrch (1010 m), and 'Lyá (1068 m). Čergov Peak itself stands at 1050 m.
The Topľa River and many of its tributaries, creeks and rivers arise from its eastern slopes. The slopes are grown with mixed forests with a predominance of deciduous trees, mostly beech, maple, oak, and birth.
At least five major nature reserves have been set aside for rare and protected species of trees, original vegetation, and protected animals. One of these, Národná prírodná rezervácia Čergovský Minčol (National Wildlife Reserve of Minčol in the Čergov), is centered on the highest peak and was founded in 1986.
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