İbrahim II of Karaman
During the post-Seljuks era in the second half of the middle ages, numerous Turkmen principalities which are collectively known as Anatolian beyliks emerged in Anatolia. Initially Karamanids centered around the modern provinces of Karaman and Konya, was the most important power in Anatolia. But towards the end of the 14th century Ottomans began to dominate on most of Anatolia, reducing the Karaman influence and prestige. Thus the campaign of Timur to Anatolia and the ensuing Ottoman Interregnum gave Karamanids a chance for revival. However Karamanids also lived a period of interregnum during Ottoman interregnum. So they were unable to end Ottoman domination in Anatolia.
İbrahim Bey and the Ottomans
İbrahim Bey was Mehmet Bey's son. He fought against his uncle Ali Bey and with the support of Ottomans he ascended to throne in 1424. But this help did not ensure his fidelity to Ottomans. He secretly allied himself with Kingdom of Hungary against Ottomans. During Ottoman wars in Europe, he was able to capture the city of Beyşehir from Ottomans. However in 1433, Ottoman Sultan Murat II returned to Anatolia and İbrahim sued for peace in 1435. Nevertheless, shortly after the peace, İbrahim laid a siege on Amasya an important Ottoman city to which Murat reacted by supporting the Dulkadirids to capture the city of Kayseri and İsa, İbrahim's brother, to capture Akşehir from Karamanids. İbrahim was forced to lift the siege in 1437. During the following seven years peace prevailed in Anatolia. But in 1444 when a great crusader army began marching to Ottoman capital, İbrahim saw his chance and plundered Ottoman cities in Anatolia including Ankara and Kütahya. Murat, caught between two fires, had to sign the Treaty of Szeged with the crusaders and then returned to Anatolia and began retaliating. İbrahim was forced to sign a treaty with unfavarable terms (called sevgendname). Although after Murat's death İbrahim allied himself with Venice, he didn't fight against Ottomans after that.
İbrahim Bey and the other powers
Although Mamluks in Egypt supported İsa, İbrahim's brother against İbrahim during the early years, İbrahim and the Mamluks were usually on good terms. However competition over Çukurova (ancient Cilicia) destroyed the friendship. İbrahim captured the important castle of Corycus in Mediterranean coast (modern Kızkalesi) from the kingdom of Cyprus in 1448. This enabled him to conquer the rest of Çukurova. But Mamluks together with Turkmen beylik of Ramazan which was their vassal attacked on Karamanids in 1456. So İbrahim gave up hopes to conquer Çukurova.[unreliable source?]
During his last years, his sons began struggling for the throne. His heir apparent was İshak, the governor of Silifke. But, Pir Ahmet, a younger son declared himself as the bey of Karaman in Konya. İbrahim escaped to a small city in western territories where he died in 1464.
In popular media
In 2012 film Fetih 1453, İbrahim of Karaman is played by Arslan İzmirli. He is depicted as a bey provoked by Emperor Constantine XI (Recep Aktuğ) to rebel against Ottoman Empire. Later, he decides to make a peace agreement with Mehmed II (Devrim Evin).
|Bey of Karaman