|People of the Pali Canon|
|Community of Buddhist Disciples|
Novice (m., f.)
|Upāsaka and Upāsikā
|Lay devotee (m., f.)
The literal meaning of śrāmaṇerī is the female form of "small śramaṇa," that is, a small renunciate, where "small" has the meaning of boy or girl.
A woman is to be ordained, according to the traditional vinayas, by both a monk and a nun, first as a śrāmaṇerī. Śrāmaṇeras and śrāmaṇerīs keep the Ten Precepts as their code of behaviour, and are devoted to the Buddhist religious life during a break from secular schooling, or in conjunction with it if devoted to formal ordination.
The Ten Precepts upheld by śrāmaṇerīs are:
- Refrain from killing living things.
- Refrain from stealing.
- Refrain from unchastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust).
- Refrain from lying.
- Refrain from taking intoxicants.
- Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
- Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
- Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories).
- Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
- Refrain from accepting money.
After a year or at the age of 20, she will be ordained as a full bhikṣuṇī (Pali: bhikkhuni).
The Theravada Vinaya has 311 rules of discipline for bhikṣuṇīs.
- Anagarika (pre-ordaination)
- International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha
- Mae ji
- Ordination Process
- World Buddhist Sangha Council
- The Bhikkhunis' Code of Discipline (Bhikkhuni Patimokkha) Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
- Buddhist Monastic Code II: Bhikkhunis
- the website of Bhante Sujato's Writings contains several (ancient and modern) texts on the role and ordination of women in Buddhism.
- Bhikkhuni committee of the ASA includes a large resource of articles regarding Bhikkhunis
- Monastic Resources - Training
- "Female Monks In Buddhism", by Dhammacaro (07/23/2005).
- "Vinaya Pitaka", brief description includes "Order of ordination for men and women...."
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