Sami Frashëri and his wife.
June 1, 1850|
Frashër, Përmet, Albania, then Ottoman Empire
|Died||June 18, 1904
Erenköy, Istanbul, Turkey, then Ottoman Empire
|Organization||Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights, Society for the Printing of Albanian Writings|
|Movement||National Renaissance of Albania|
|Children||Ali Sami Yen|
|Relatives||Abdyl Frashëri (Brother)
Naim Frashëri (Brother)
Mit'hat Frashëri (Nephew)
Mehdi Frashëri (Nephew)
Sami Frashëri (Turkish: Şemseddin Sami, June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim. He accepted and supported the Turkish nationalism and laicism and had close relationships with Turkish nationalist intellectuals such as Veled Chelebi (İzbudak) and Nedjib 'Asim (Yazıksız).
Frashëri was one of the sons of an impoverished Bey from Frashër (Fraşer during the Ottoman rule) in the District of Përmet. He gained a place in Ottoman literature as a talented author under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi and contributed to the Ottoman Turkish language reforms.
However, Frashëri's message, as declared in his book "Albania - What it was, what it is, and what will become of it" published in 1899, became the manifesto of the Albanian Renaissance (Rilindja Kombëtare). Frashëri discussed the prospects for a free and independent republic of Albania. In this way, beginning with a demand for autonomy and struggle for their own alphabet and education, he helped the Albanian National Liberation movement develop its claim for independence. Translation and distribution of his works were financed by Theodor Anton Ippen (consul of Austria-Hungary) and Nopcsa. Nowadays, a lot of schools bear his name, i.e. Sami Frashëri High School is one of the most well-known gymnasiums in Tirana, and Prishtina.
He attended the Greek language Zosimea gymnasium in Ioannina, Epirus. There, he came in touch with western philosophy and studied Greek, French and Italian. With the help of a personal teacher, he also learned Turkish, Arabic, and Persian.
In 1872 he migrated to Istanbul where he worked in a governmental press bureau. His lifetime goal, as that of many other members of Albanian renaissance, was the development and improvement of Albania's culture and independence of the country.
Along with his elder brother Abdyl, Hasan Tahsini, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto, he founded the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights. Early in the 1879, this committee formed a commission for Albanian alphabet.
Sami Frashëri also founded and headed the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings in October 1879, where Albanian scholastic books and texts were compiled by him and his brother Naim. The society was forced to close by the Ottoman Government in 1885 along with the Drita magazine, then Dituria, which had been opened in 1884 by Petro Poga, but on decree issued on demand of Sami Frasheri.
Sami is the author of around 50 masterpieces. Theodor Anton Ippen (consul of Austria-Hungary) and Nopcsa financed the translation and distribution of the works of Sami Frasheri. Some of his most important writings are:
- Ta'aşşûk-ı Tal'at ve Fitnât (Albanian: Dashuria e Talatit me Fitneten -English: The Love Between Talat and Fitnat, 1873)
The story carries a sentimental subject of love between Talat and Fitnat. Generally, the novel consists of a combination of Oriental and Western writing styles. Also, this novel is commonly mistaken to be the first novel written in Turkish.
- Besâ yâhut Âhde Vefâ (Albanian: "Besa ose Mbajtja e Fjalës" - English: Besa or The Given Word of Trust, 1874).
Is a melodrama aiming Besa as a subject, but in a very tragic situation; the father kills his son to keep the given word.
- Seydi Yahya (1875)
- Gâve (1876)
- Mezalim-i Endülûs (Never printed)
- Vicdân (Never printed)
Dictionaries and Encyclopedical Works
- Kamûs-ı Fransevî (1882–1905, French-Turkish dictionary)
- Kamûs-ı Fransevî (1885, French-Turkish dictionary)
- Küçük Kamûs-ı Fransevî (1886, French-Turkish dictionary)
- Kamûs-ül Â'lâm (6 volumes, 1889–1898, Encyclopedia of General Science, known to be the first Encyclopedia printed in Turkish)
- Kamûs-ı 'Arabî (1898, Arabic-Turkish dictionary, unfinished)
- Kamus-ı Türki (2 volumes, dictionary of the Classical Ottoman Turkish language, still widely used as a reference as of today, 1899–1900, reprints and facsimiles in 1978 and 1998)
Şemseddin Sami also did a series of scientific writings in Albanian such as Qielli (Sky), Toka (Earth), Njeriu (Human Being), Gjuha (Language), and many more.
Educational Writings in Albanian
- Allfabetarja e Stambollit (Alphabet of Istanbul, 1879),
- Abetarja e Shkronjëtoreja (Grammatical Work, 1886).
In Turkish in his "Pocket Library" collection, he published small scientific booklets on subjects as Astronomy, Geology, Anthropology, History of Islam and the Islamic civilization, Women, Mythology and Linguistics. He also published a small compilation of Humor named Letâ'if in two volumes, a compilation of Proverbs and Quotes named Emsâl in four volumes, and a series of reading-oriented educational books for schoolchildren.
Sami Frashëri together with Jani Vreto supported the idea that the Albanian alphabet should be based on the Greek alphabet, since according to them, Albanians and Greeks have the same ancestors, the Pelasgians.
- Usûl-ü Tenkîd ve Tertîb (1886, Orthography of Turkish)
- Nev'usûl Sarf-ı Türkî (1891, Modern Turkish Grammar)
- Yeñi Usûl-ü Elifbâ-yı Türkî (1898, New Turkish Alphabetical System)
- Usûl-ü Cedîd-i Kavâ'id-i 'Arabiyye (1910, New Method for Learning Arabic)
- Tatbîkât-ı 'Arabiyye (1911, Exercises in Arabic)
- Shqipëria ç'ka qenë, ç'është e çdo të bëhetë (Albania - what it was, what it is and what it will be, 1889).
- Theoretical commentary that became Rilindja Kombëtare's manifesto.
- Bozkurt Güvenç, Türk Kimliği, Kültür Bakanlığı, 1993, p. 32. (Turkish)
- Diana Mishkova, We, The People: Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe, Central European University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-963-9776-28-9, p. 363.
- The crescent and the eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913 By George Walter Gawrych page 88
- Blumi, Isa (2007), Seeing Beyond the River Drin, Sarajevo, Ottoman Albanians and Imperial Rivalry in the Balkans after 1878, Austria: Kakanien revisited, p. 6, "s. Ippen and Nopcsa openly advocated funding efforts to solidify the cultural ambitions of nationalist leaders, resulting, for instance, in the translation into German and distribution of Sami Frashëri’s works"
- In reality, the first novel written entirely in Turkish was Akabi's Story by Vartan Paşa, an Armenian Ottoman Pasha in the year 1851
- Michael Kreutz. Modernismus und Europaidee in der Östlichen Mittelmeerwelt, 1821-1939. p. 166
- Letërsia Romantike Shqiptare - Për klasën e njëmbëdhjetë (Albanian Romantic Literature - For eleventh class), Pristina, 2004 – Sabri Hamiti.