Šandor Alexander

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Šandor Alexander
pl. Sesvetski
Šandor Alexander.JPG
Born (1866-04-05)5 April 1866
Zagreb, Austrian Empire, (now Croatia)
Died 17 December 1929(1929-12-17) (aged 63)
Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, (now Serbia)
Resting place
Mirogoj Cemetery
Citizenship Croatia
Home town Zagreb
Religion Judaism
Spouse(s) Karolina Dragojla (née Ebenspanger) Alexander
Children Zora (b. 1895)
Parents Jonas and Roza Alexander
Relatives Samuel David Alexander
(brother)
Oskar Alexander
(cousin)
Viktor Alexander
(cousin)

Šandor Alexander pl. Sesvetski (April 5, 1866 – December 17, 1929) was an Croatian nobleman, industrialist, philanthropist, younger brother of Samuel David Alexander and member of the Zagreb prominent Alexander family.[1][2]

Background and family[edit]

Alexander, known as Der Berühmte (The Notable One), was born in Zagreb to a Croatian Jewish family.[1][3] His father, Jonas Alexander, was a merchant who came to Zagreb from Güssing, Austria and his mother Roza (née Stern) was from Zagreb old influential Jewish family. Alexander had an older brother, Samuel David, and two sisters, Gizela and Ilka.[4] Alexander attended elementary and high school in Zagreb. He was married to Karolina Dragojla (née Ebenspanger) Alexander, who was from Varaždin. Together they had only child, daughter Zora who was born on September 18, 1895 in Zagreb. Alexander wife died in Zagreb, on September 18, 1925. His daughter was married to Croatian Jewish industrialist and merchant, Artur Marić (born Mayer). In 1944, during World War II, Alexander daughter was killed by Nazis in Auschwitz.[5][6]

Business and political career[edit]

Hotel Palace in Zagreb, originally called Schlesinger Palace (1891), once owned by Alexander

After his education, Alexander worked for 3 years at the "Paromlin" in Zagreb. Alexander gained his commercial training as a partner of his father, at their family grain wholesale.[7] He was remarkable economic expert who published the noted article in the "Bankarstvo" magazine, 1924. Between 1905 and 1910, Alexander was the city representative in the Zagreb City Assembly.[8] In 1909 he became the adviser of Franz Joseph I of Austria.[9] Alexander worked and was a member in more than 60 association in Croatia. He was the councillor, vicepresident and honorary president of the "Commercial Chamber".[10] He also worked as treasurer and later as a vicepresident of the "Commercial Home" in Zagreb, and as an honorary vicepresident of the "Association of traders for Croatia and Slavonija".[10][11] Alexander was also the vicepresident of the "Bank for commerce and industry d.d.", and board member of the "Croatian trust bank d.d." and "Croatian commercial bank d.d.".[12][13] Since 1885, at "Croatian commercial association Merkur", Alexander was at first vicepresident, since 1892 the president and in 1910, he was honored as a lifetime president.[14] Within "Merkur", he advocated the development of vocational education. Alexander was major stock holder of the "First Croatian machinery factory and iron foundry" in Zagreb. He also encouraged the development of tourism in Croatia, and as so he was the major shareholder of "Schlesinger Palace" (now "Hotel Palace, Zagreb") in Zagreb. Alexander was member of the society "Narodni rad - društvo židovskih asimilanata i anticionista u Hrvatskoj" (Peoples work - Society of Jewish assimilates and anti Zionists in Croatia).[2]

Philanthropy[edit]

Alexander was great philanthropist, just like his brother, who donted the most of his earnings.[10] Around 1908, Alexander founded the society for feeding poor school children in Zagreb, where he was also the treasurer.[15][16] He also managed the Croatian academic society, which supported and funded the poor academic citizens. Every society which had the fortune to have Alexander as a treasurer, never had problems with finances. During World War I, Alexander organized and largely financed the "Council for helping the unemployed and disabled employees of trading, industrial and financial institutions", which he also chaired as the president.[17] His greatest merit was when he, fall of 1914, established a public kitchen for the poor citizens and families of those who fought on the battlefield during the war.[10][15] Alexander founded the charity "Prehrana".[10][15][18] At 1925, "Prehrana" was estimated at 25 million dinars. "Prehrana" distributed millions of meals, according to some estimates over 15 millions. At the beginning of the World War I, Alexander donated 1 million golden guldens as an irreversible war loan to the state. For that, on August 13, 1918, Alexander was knighted by Charles I of Austria and awarded with the title pl. (plemeniti (Croatian) = noble ) Sesvetski.[19]

Death[edit]

On December 17, 1929, while attending the Royal Guard ball in Belgrade, Alexander suddenly fell ill. He died from a heart attack in the night from the 17th. to the 18th. of December, 1929. All major newspapers reported in detail and with great sadness about Alexanders death and funeral. Alexander was buried at the Mirogoj Cemetery with huge crowd attending the funeral.[20][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Snješka Knežević (2011, p. 48)
  2. ^ a b Ivo Goldstein (2005, pp. 174, 268)
  3. ^ Ognjen Kraus (1998, p. 134)
  4. ^ Gavro Schwarz (1939)
  5. ^ (Croatian) Dundović J. Adresar 1909: 274.
  6. ^ Frank, Robert (2011-05-10). "Ivanović: Hrvatska nije vlasnik 44 posto Ine" (in Croatian). limun.hr. Retrieved 2012-07-24. Uz IPOIL obitelji Ivanović, vlasništvo Ine nakon Drugog svjetskog rata postala i imovina obitelji Marić. Artura Marica, jednog od velikih vlasnika hrvatskog naftnog biznisa prije rata, već na samom njegovom početku ubio je njegov vozač, agent Gestapoa. Supruga mu je ubijena u Auschwitzu 1944. godine, a država je imovinu konfiscirala sa zadnjim ispaljenim metkom. 
  7. ^ (Croatian) Obrtovno kazalo, Odluka sudbenog stola od 14.02.1893, br.1 5617.
  8. ^ (Croatian) Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1908: 40, 143; Dundović J. Adresar 1908: 18.
  9. ^ (Croatian) Imenik 1918: 10.
  10. ^ a b c d e Ivo Banac (1988, pp. 409)
  11. ^ (Croatian) Dundović J. Adresar 1908: 44; Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1908: 130; 1911: 124.
  12. ^ (Croatian) Dundović J. Adresar 1908: 224; Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1908: 145; 1911: 145; 1912: 141; 1913: 146.
  13. ^ (Croatian) Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1908: 226.
  14. ^ (Croatian) Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1908: 169.
  15. ^ a b c (Croatian) Sandra Prlenda; The History of Social Work in Croatia, 1900- 1960; stranica 14,
  16. ^ (Croatian) Dundović J. Adresar 1908: 67.
  17. ^ (Croatian) Imenik dostojanstvenika, činovnika i javnih službenika Kraljevina Hrvatske i Slavonije, 1918: 169.
  18. ^ "Zaklada predsjednika i osnivača "Prehrane" Šandora A. Alexandera" (in Croatian). Državni arhiv u Zagrebu. 
  19. ^ (Croatian) Viktor Anton Duišin; Heraldički zbornik, Zbornik plemstva u Hrvatskoj; Slavoniji, Dalmaciji, Bosni-Hercegovini, Dubrovniku, Kotoru i Vojvodini; 1938 Zagreb; 12.
  20. ^ (Croatian) Mogenblatt 44/1929, 347, zweite Ausgabe, 19.XII, str.2-3; Mogenblatt 44/1929, 349, zweite Ausgabe, 19.XII, str.1-2; Josip Kraus, Šandor Alexander wie er wirklich war, Mogenblatt 44/1929, 352, str.9-10; Novosti, 23/1929, 352, 19.XII., str.9; Hrvatski radiša, 1930, 1: 11-12; Jugoslavenski Lloyd, 1929, 292:1; Jutarnji list, 18/1929, 6422, 19.II., str.8-9; Trgovačke novine, 6/1929, 31:2; Privreda, 5/1930, 1:1-2; Privredna revija 6/1930, 1:5., itd.
  21. ^ (Croatian) Gradska groblja Zagreb: Šandor Aleksander, Mirogoj Ž-924-ARKP-17/2

Bibliography[edit]

  • Snješka Knežević, Aleksander Laslo (2011). Židovski Zagreb. Zagreb: AGM, Židovska općina Zagreb. ISBN 978-953-174-393-8. 
  • Goldstein, Ivo (2005). Židovi u Zagrebu 1918 - 1941. Zagreb: Novi Liber. ISBN 953-6045-23-0. 
  • Kraus, Ognjen (1998). Dva stoljeća povijesti i kulture Židova u Zagrebu i Hrvatskoj. Zagreb: Židovska općina Zagreb. ISBN 953-96836-2-9. 
  • Schwarz, Gavro (1939). Povijest Zagrebačke židovske općine od osnutka do 50-tih godina 19. vijeka. Zagreb: Gaj. 
  • Banac, Ivo (1988). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-080-149-493-2.