The letter Ƣ (minuscule: ƣ) has been used in the Latin orthographies of various, mostly Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Jaŋalif orthography for Tatar. It usually represents a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] but is sometimes used for a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]. All orthographies using it have been phased out, so the letter is not well-supported in fonts. It can still be seen on pre-1983 books published by the People’s Republic of China.
Historically, it is derived from a handwritten form of the small Latin letter q, around 1900. The majuscule is then based on the minuscule. Its use for [ɣ] stems from the linguistic tradition of representing such sounds (and similars) by q in Turkic languages and in transcriptions of Arabic or Persian (compare kaf and qof).
In alphabetical order, it comes between G and H.
- Azeri: Ğ, ğ
- Tatar: Г, г (Cyrillic), Ğ, ğ (Latin)
- Bashkir: Ғ, ғ
- Kazakh: Ғ, ғ
- Uyghur: غ (Arabic), Ғ, ғ (Cyrillic), GH gh (Latin)
- Yakut: Ҕ, ҕ
- Uzbek: Gʻ gʻ
- Tajik: Ғ, ғ
Letter Q with diacritics
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