ǁXegwi language

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ǁXegwi
Region South Africa
Ethnicity Tlou-tle
Extinct 1988[1]
Tuu
  • ǃKwi
    • ǁXegwi
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xeg
Glottolog xegw1238[2]
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ǁXegwi, also known as Batwa, is an extinct ǃKwi language spoken at Lake Chrissie in South Africa, near the Swazi border. The last known speaker, Jopi Mabinda, was murdered in 1988.[3] However, a reporter for the South African newspaper Mail & Guardian reports that ǁXegwi may still be spoken in the Chrissiesmeer district.[4]

The ǁXegwi name for their language has been spelled giǁkwi:gwi or kiǁkwi:gwi. Their name for themselves has been transcribed tlou tle or kxlou-kxle, presumably [kouke]. The Nguni (Zulu and Swazi) called them (a)batwa, amaNkqeshe, amaNgqwigqwi; the Sotho called them Baroa/Barwa.[5]

Phonology[edit]

ǁXegwi lost the abrupt clicks (the various manners of ǂ and ǃ) found in its relatives. It reacquired ǃ from Nguni Bantu languages, but clicks remained relatively infrequent, compared to other Tuu languages. It also had a series of uvular plosives not found in other Tuu languages.[6]

Pulmonic
consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral central lateral
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop b t d ɟ k g q ɢ ʔ
k͡ʟ̝̊ʰ
Affricate ts
tx
dz kx k͡ʟ̝̊
Fricative β s z ɬ ɮ ʃ x h ɦ
Sonorant r l j w
Glottalic consonants Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
central lateral
Plosive kʷʼ
Affricate tsʼ tʃʼ kxʼ kʼ
Lingual consonants Labial Dental Alveolar
central lateral
Nasal modal ᵑʘ ᵑǀ ᵑǃ ᵑǁ
glottalized ǀˀ ǁˀ
murmured ᵑǀʱ ᵑǁʱ
Plosive voiced ᶢǀ ᶢǃ ᶢǁ
tenuis ʘ ǀ ǃ ǁ
Affricate ʘx ǀx ǃx ǁx

References[edit]

  1. ^ ǁXegwi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "ǁXegwi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Traill, A. "The Khoesan languages", in Mesthrie, Rajend Language in South Africa, Cambridge U.P., 2004
  4. ^ http://mg.co.za/article/2011-06-24-the-secret-pool-of-surviving-bushmen-at-chrissiesmeer
  5. ^ Yvonne Treis, 1998, "Names of Khoisan Languages and their Variants"
  6. ^ Anthony Traill, 1999. Extinct South African Khoisan Languages.

External links[edit]