|Region||South Africa, Lesotho|
gku – ǂUngkue
kqu – Seroa (partial: ǁŨǁ’e)
Vaal–Orange, also known as Seroa, is an extinct ǃKwi language of South Africa and Lesotho. It comprised the ǂUngkue dialect (also rendered ǂKunkwe) of the Warrenton area, recorded by Carl Meinhof, and the ǁŨǁ’e dialect (also rendered ǁKu-ǁ’e or ǁKuǁe), spoken near Theunissen and Bethany in South Africa and into Lesotho, recorded by Dorothea Bleek.
Like ǀXam, ǂUngkue used 'inclusory' pronouns for compound subjects:
ǃhoeti nan koro nan tuē n a ‖’a lion and jackal and ostrich they ?PAST go
- 'The lion and jackal and ostrich, they went'. (Meinhof 1929)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "||Ku||e". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Vaal–Orange". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Distinguish ǁNg ǃ’e, a form of Nǁng, and Nǀhuǁéi, which is a variety of Taa.
- Tom Güldemann (2011) "The Lower Nossob varieties of Tuu: ǃUi, Taa or neither?"
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