Dz (digraph)

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Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, Polish, Kashubian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovak, and Hungarian to represent /d͡z/. In Dene Suline (Chipewyan) and Cantonese Pinyin it represents /t͡s/.

In Polish[edit]

dz generally represents [d͡z]. However, when followed by i it is palatalized to [d͡ʑ].

Examples of dz[edit]

About this sound dzwon  (bell)
About this sound rodzaj  (kind, type)

Compare dz followed by i:
About this sound dziecko  (child)
About this sound dziewczyna  (girl, girlfriend)

In Slovak[edit]

In Slovak, the digraph dz is the ninth letter of the Slovak alphabet. Example words with this phoneme include:

  • medzi = between, among
  • hrádza = dam, dike

The digraph may never be divided by hyphenation:

  • medzi → me-dzi
  • hrádza → hrá-dza

However, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, and must be divided by hyphenation:

  • odzemok = type of folk dance → od-ze-mok
  • nadzvukový = supersonic → nad-zvu-ko-vý

In both cases od- (from) and nad- (above) are a prefix to the stems zem (earth) and zvuk (sound).

In Hungarian[edit]

Dz is the seventh letter of the Hungarian alphabet. It is pronounced (using English pronunciation) "dzay" in the alphabet, but just "dz" when spoken in a word. In IPA, it is written as /dz/.

Length[edit]

In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g.

  • bodza, madzag, edz, pedz

In some other ones, short, e.g.

  • brindza, ódzkodik, dzadzíki, dzéta, Dzerzsinszkij

In several verbs ending in -dzik (approx. 50), it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g.

  • csókolódzik, lopódzik, takaródzik

These are verbs where the dz can be replaced by z (and is replaced by some speakers): csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik.

In some of these verbs, there is no free variation: birkózik, mérkőzik (only with z) but leledzik, nyáladzik (only with dz, pronounced long). In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez(ik) (correspond with sb.) but leveledzik (to leaf [like a tree]).

It is only doubled in writing when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem: eddze, lopóddzon.

Usage[edit]

Usage of this letter is similar to that of Polish and Slovak languages. In Hungarian, even if these two characters are put together to make a different sound, they are considered one letter, and even acronyms keep the letter intact.

Examples[edit]

These examples are Hungarian words that contain the letter dz, with the English translation following.
  • bodza = elderberry
  • edzés = (physical) training
  • edző = coach
  • nyáladzik = salivate

In Esperanto[edit]

Some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto,[1] consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate [d͡z], as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak".[2] Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists (Janton,[3] Wells[4]), reject it.

Unicode[edit]

DZ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block. It is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, and lowercase forms.

Code Glyph Decimal Description
U+01F1
DZ
DZ Latin Capital Letter DZ
U+01F2
Dz
Dz Latin Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z
U+01F3
dz
dz Latin Small Letter DZ

The single-character versions are designed for compatibility with Yugoslav encodings supporting Romanization of Macedonian, where this digraph corresponds to the Cyrillic letter Ѕ.

Variants[edit]

Additional variants of the Dz digraph are also encoded in Unicode.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, §17, 22
  2. ^ van Oostendorp, Marc (1999). Syllable structure in Esperanto as an instantiation of universal phonology. Esperantologio / Esperanto Studies 1, 52 80. p. 68
  3. ^ Pierre Janton, Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Translated by Humphrey Tonkin et al. State University of New York Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1254-7.
  4. ^ J. C. Wells, Lingvistikaj Aspektoj de Esperanto, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1978. ISBN 92 9017 021 2.