Examples of dz
- medzi = between, among
- hrádza = dam, dike
The digraph may never be divided by hyphenation:
- medzi → me-dzi
- hrádza → hrá-dza
However, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, and must be divided by hyphenation:
- odzemok = type of folk dance → od-ze-mok
- nadzvukový = supersonic → nad-zvu-ko-vý
In both cases od- (from) and nad- (above) are a prefix to the stems zem (earth) and zvuk (sound).
Closeup of a Hungarian keyboard
|Hungarian and English|
In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g.
- bodza, madzag, edz, pedz
In some other ones, short, e.g.
- brindza, ódzkodik, dzadzíki, dzéta, Dzerzsinszkij
In several verbs ending in -dzik (approx. 50), it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g.
- csókolódzik, lopódzik, takaródzik
These are verbs where the dz can be replaced by z (and is replaced by some speakers): csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik.
In some of these verbs, there is no free variation: birkózik, mérkőzik (only with z) but leledzik, nyáladzik (only with dz, pronounced long). In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez(ik) (correspond with sb.) but leveledzik (to leaf [like a tree]).
It is only doubled in writing when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem: eddze, lopóddzon.
Usage of this letter is similar to that of Polish and Slovak languages. In Hungarian, even if these two characters are put together to make a different sound, they are considered one letter, and even acronyms keep the letter intact.
- These examples are Hungarian words that contain the letter dz, with the English translation following.
- bodza = elderberry
- edzés = (physical) training
- edző = coach
- nyáladzik = salivate
Some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto, consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate [d͡z], as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak". Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists (Janton, Wells), reject it.
DZ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block. It is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, and lowercase forms.
||Ǳ||Latin Capital Letter DZ|
||ǲ||Latin Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z|
||ǳ||Latin Small Letter DZ|
Additional variants of the Dz digraph are also encoded in Unicode.
- Ǆ, ǅ and ǆ (Dz with a caron over z), a digraph used in the Croatian and Bosnian alphabets as a letter in its own right, are encoded at U+01C4, U+01C5 and U+01C6 respectively.
- ʣ, a ligature of lowercase dz, historically used to represent the Voiced alveolar affricate in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is encoded at U+02A3.
- ʥ, a ligature of lowercase dz with a curl on the z, histoircally used to represent the Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate in the IPA, is encoded at U+02A5.
- ʤ (dezh), a ligature of lowercase d and ezh (a z with a tail), is encoded at U+20A4
- Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, §17, 22
- van Oostendorp, Marc (1999). Syllable structure in Esperanto as an instantiation of universal phonology. Esperantologio / Esperanto Studies 1, 52 80. p. 68
- Pierre Janton, Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Translated by Humphrey Tonkin et al. State University of New York Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1254-7.
- J. C. Wells, Lingvistikaj Aspektoj de Esperanto, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1978. ISBN 92 9017 021 2.