Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Sound

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a reversed letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë. This letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard[1][2] bit About this sound [bɘ̟t]  'bit' Somewhat fronted,[1] more so in Belgium.[2] The height also varies, it's been variously described as lowered close-mid[2] and raised close-mid.[1][3] It's typically transcribed as /ɪ/, the way it's pronounced in some dialects.[4] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed as /ɜː/. Many speakers pronounce this vowel rounded ([ɵː]). See Australian English phonology
Cardiff[7] foot [fɘ̠t] 'foot' Retracted; corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
General American recognize [ɹɛkɘɡnaɪz] 'recognize' Corresponds to /ə/ in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[8] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Southern American[9] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[9] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Kazakh тіл [tɘl] 'language'
Korean [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'senior' See Korean phonology.
Mongolian[10] үсрэ [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Paicî  ?? [kɘ̄ɾɘ̄] 'spider'
Polish[11] mysz About this sound [mɘ̟ʂ]  'mouse' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ɨ/. See Polish phonology
Russian[12] солнце [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ] 'sun' This occurs only for some speakers after /t͡s/. See Russian phonology
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I left'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] ne [nɘ] 'and'

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]