Open-mid central rounded vowel

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Open-mid central rounded vowel
ɞ
ɔ̈
IPA number 395
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɞ
Unicode (hex) U+025E
X-SAMPA 3\
Kirshenbaum O"
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)

The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɞ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ɔ̈.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ʚ, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ latin small letter closed open e. The form ɞ (U+025E ɞ latin small letter closed reversed open e) is considered correct.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Irish[1] but [bɞt] 'but' Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology
Newfoundland[2]
German Standard[3] Parfum [pʰäʁˈfɞ̃ː] 'perfume' Nasalized, somewhat fronted and lowered.[3] Most often transcribed /œ̃(ː)/. Present only in loanwords. See German phonology
Irish tomhail [tɞ̜ːlʲ] 'consume' (imp.) See Irish phonology
Kashubian ptôch [ptɞx] 'bird'
Navajo[4] tsosts’id [tsʰɞstsʼɪt] 'seven' See Navajo phonology
Norwegian Stavanger[5] topp [tɞp] 'top' Corresponds to [ɒ̝̈] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Somali keenaysaa [keːnɞjsɑː] 'she brings' See Somali phonology

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wells (1982a:422)
  2. ^ Wells (1982b:499)
  3. ^ a b Mangold (2005:37)
  4. ^ McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open mid vowel.
  5. ^ Vanvik (1979:17)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 
  • McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages 84: 143–150 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Wells, John C. (1982a), Accents of English, II: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
  • Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, III: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0