Open-mid central rounded vowel
|Open-mid central rounded vowel|
The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ɔ̈⟩.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ latin small letter closed open e. The form ⟨ɞ⟩ (U+025E ɞ latin small letter closed reversed open e) is considered correct.
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It's rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|English||Irish||but||[bɞt]||'but'||Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology|
|German||Standard||Parfum||[pʰäʁˈfɞ̃ː]||'perfume'||Nasalized, somewhat fronted and lowered. Most often transcribed /œ̃(ː)/. Present only in loanwords. See German phonology|
|Irish||tomhail||[tɞ̜ːlʲ]||'consume' (imp.)||See Irish phonology|
|Navajo||tsosts’id||[tsʰɞstsʼɪt]||'seven'||See Navajo phonology|
|Norwegian||Stavanger||topp||[tɞp]||'top'||Corresponds to [ɒ̝̈] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology|
|Somali||keenaysaa||[keːnɞjsɑː]||'she brings'||See Somali phonology|
- Wells (1982a:422)
- Wells (1982b:499)
- Mangold (2005:37)
- McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open mid vowel.
- Vanvik (1979:17)
- Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667
- McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages 84: 143–150
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Wells, John C. (1982a), Accents of English, II: The British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0
- Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, III: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0