Voiced glottal fricative
|Voiced glottal fricative|
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɦ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h\.
In many languages, [ɦ] has no place or manner of articulation. For this reason, it has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel from a phonetic point of view. However, its characteristics are also influenced by the preceding vowels and whatever other sounds surround it, so it can be described as a segment whose only consistent feature is its breathy voice phonation, in such languages. It may have real glottal constriction in a number of languages (such as Finnish), making it a fricative.
Features of the voiced glottal fricative:
- Its phonation type is breathy voiced, or murmured, which means the vocal cords are loosely vibrating, with more air escaping than in a modally voiced sound.
- In some languages, it has the constricted manner of articulation of a fricative. However, in many if not most it is a transitional state of the glottis with no manner of articulation other than its phonation type. Because there is no other constriction to produce friction in the vocal tract, most phoneticians no longer consider [ɦ] to be a fricative. True fricatives may have a murmured phonation in addition to producing friction elsewhere. However, the term "fricative" is generally retained for the historical reasons.
- It may have a glottal place of articulation. However, it may have no fricative articulation, making the term glottal mean that it is articulated by the vocal folds, but this is the nature of its phonation rather than a separate articulation. All consonants except for the glottals, and all vowels, have an individual place of articulation in addition to the state of the glottis. As with all other consonants, surrounding vowels influence the pronunciation [ɦ], and accordingly [ɦ] has only the place of articulation of these surrounding vowels.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Basque||Northeastern dialects||hemen||[ɦemen]||'here'||Can also be [h].|
|Czech||hora||[ˈɦora]||'mountain'||See Czech phonology|
|Dutch||haat||[ɦaːt]||'hate'||See Dutch phonology|
|English||Received Pronunciation||behind||[bɪˈɦaɪnd]||'behind'||Some speakers, only between vowels. See English phonology|
|Broad South African||hand||[ˈɦænd]||'hand'||Some speakers, only before a stressed vowel.|
|Finnish||raha||[rɑɦɑ]||'money'||Allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Finnish phonology|
|Hebrew||מהר||[mäɦe̞ʁ]||'fast'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Hindustani||हूँ / ہوں||[ɦu᷉]||'am'||See Hindustani phonology|
|Korean||방학 banghak||[pɐŋɦɐk̚]||'vacation'||Occurs only after /ŋ/. See Korean phonology|
|Lithuanian||humoras||[ˈɦʊmɔrɐs̪]||'humour'||Often pronounced instead of [ɣ]. See Lithuanian phonology|
|Polish||Podhale dialect||hydrant||[ˈɦɘ̟d̪rän̪t̪]||'fire hydrant'||Contrasts with /x/. Standard Polish possesses only /x/. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||Fluminense||rapaz||[ɦəˈpaɕ]||'male youth'||Allophone of /ʁ/ (in all positions) and, much as [h] and [∅] (zero), of /S/ (coda sibilant phoneme), especially across more palatalizing dialects and/or innovative registers. See Portuguese phonology and guttural R|
|Brazilian (some colloquial variations)||mesmo||[ˈmeɦmu]||'same', 'even'|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||haină||[ɦainə][stress?]||'coat'||Corresponds to [h][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Slovene||Littoral dialect group||hora||[ˈɦɔra]||'mountain'||This is a general feature of all Slovene dialects west of the Škofja Loka–Planina line. Corresponds to [ɡ] in other dialects.|
|Rovte dialect group|
|Ukrainian||голос||[ˈɦɔlos]||'voice'||Also described as [ʕ]. See Ukrainian phonology|
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:325–326)
- Laufer (1991:91)
- Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003:24)
- Gussenhoven (1992:45)
- Roach (2004:241)
- Harry (2003:113)
- (Portuguese) Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese
- (Portuguese) Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty
- Pop (1938), p. 30.
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Harry, Otelemate (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X
- Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A Grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19814-8
- Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 91–93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768