Voiceless labio-velar approximant
|Voiceless labio-velar approximant|
The voiceless labiovelar (labialized velar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ʍ〉 (a rotated lowercase letter 〈w〉) or 〈w̥〉.
[ʍ] is generally called a "fricative" for historical reasons, but in English, the language that the letter 〈ʍ〉 is primarily used for, it is a voiceless approximant, equivalent to [w̥] or [hw̥]. On rare occasions the symbol is appropriated for a labialized voiceless velar fricative, [xʷ], in other languages.
Features of the voiceless labial-velar approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is labialized velar, which means it is articulated with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate (the velum) while rounding the lips.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Cornish||whath, hwath||[ʍæːθ]||'still', 'yet'||Is spelled 〈wh〉 and 〈hw〉 in the Standard Written Form, as 〈wh〉 in Kernowek Standard, Unified Cornish, Unified Cornish Revised and Modern Cornish, and 〈hw〉 in Kernewek Kemmyn.|
|English||American Theater Standard||whine||[ʍaɪ̯n]||'whine'||Phonemically /hw/; contrasts with /w/. In General American and New Zealand English only some speakers maintain the distinction; in Britain, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents. See English phonology and phonological history of wh.|
|Conservative Received Pronunciation|
|Cultivated South African|
|Hupa||tł'iwh||[t͡ɬʼiʍ]||'snake', 'rattlesnake'||Contrasts with /w/.|
|Nahuatl||Cuauhtēmallān||[kʷaʍteːmalːaːn]||'Guatemala'||Allophone of /w/ before voiceless consonants.|
- Skinner (1990), p. 335.
- Rogers (2000), p. 120.
- Rogers (2000), p. 117.
- "Australian English and New Zealand English". p. 9.
- "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
- Lass (2002), p. 121.
- "North American English: General Accents". p. 6.
- Wells (1982a), p. 432.
- "Irish English and Ulster English". pp. 4 and 7.
- McMahon (2002), p. 31.
- Wells (1982a), p. 408.
- "Scottish Standard English and Scots". p. 6.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
- Wells (1982b), p. 610.
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
- Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
- McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0 7486 1252 1
- Rogers, Henry (2000), The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
- Skinner, Edith; Timothy Monich; Lilene Mansell (ed.) (1990). Speak with distinction (Second ed.). New York: Applause Theatre Book Publishers. ISBN 1-55783-047-9.
- Wells, J.C. (1982a), Accents of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Wells, J.C. (1982b). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28541-0.