Voiced epiglottal fricative

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Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʢ
ʢ̝
IPA number 174
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʢ
Unicode (hex) U+02A2
X-SAMPA <\
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
Sound
Voiced epiglottal approximant
ʢ
ʢ̞
Sound

The voiced epiglottal fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʢ.

Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, ʢ is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language has a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. Sometimes the lowering diacritic is used to specify that the manner is approximant: ʢ̞.

Few languages distinguish between pharyngeal and epiglottal fricatives, and in fact the fricatives in Arabic are routinely described as "pharyngeal". However, according to Peter Ladefoged, the Aghul spoken in the village of Burkikhan, Dagestan has both (as well as an epiglottal stop).

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced epiglottal approximant/fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Some dialects[1] [example needed] Corresponds to /ʕ/ () in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
German Swabian[2] endara [ˈendaʢ̞ə] 'to change' An approximant.[2] It's an allophone of /ʁ/ in nucleus and coda positions;[2] pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  2. ^ a b c d Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality". Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. 

Bibliography[edit]