Voiced alveolar affricate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ʣ)
Jump to: navigation, search

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
d͡z
d͜z
IPA number 104 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʣ
Unicode (hex) U+02A3
X-SAMPA dz
Kirshenbaum dz
Sound

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡z or d͜z (formerly ʣ).

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of passive articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with the tongue at the alveolar ridge just behind the gums.
  • Its place of active articulation is either apical, meaning that the tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge, or, more often, laminal, meaning that the tongue blade (the part just behind the top) contacts the alveolar ridge, with the tongue tip resting behind the lower front teeth roots.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аӡы [ɑˈd͡zɨ] 'water' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe дзэлӀы About this sound [d͡zaɬʼə]  'soldier'
Albanian xehe [d͡zɛhɛ] 'mineral'
Arabic Najdi قـليب [d͡zɛ̝lib] 'well' corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
Armenian Western ծակ [d͡zɑɡ] 'hole'
Azerbaijani some Western dialects Cəbrayıl [d͡zæbɾɑˈjɯɫ] 'Jibra'il' Corresponds to /d͡ʒ/ or /ɟ/ in other dialects.
Berber Kabyle Layer [ld͡zajər] 'Algeria'
Catalan[1] dotze [ˈd̪odd͡zə] 'twelve' See Catalan phonology
French Quebec samedi [samd͡zi] 'Saturday' Allophone of /d/ before /i/ and /y/. See Quebec French phonology
Georgian[2] ვალი [d͡zvɑli] 'bone'
Greek τζάμι [ˈd͡zami] 'window pane'
Hebrew תזונה [d͡zuna] 'nutrition' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Iu Mien nzoc [d͡zò] 'drum'
Japanese mizu [mʲiˈdzu͍] 'water' Some speakers. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian дзын [d͡zən] 'to throw'
Ngwe Nwametaw dialect [mə̀d͡zə̀] 'path'
Occitan Rhodanien Provençal joine [ˈd͡zujne] 'young'
Pashto پنځه [pind͡zə] 'five'
Portuguese[3] European, northern dezasseis [d͡zɐˈs̺ejs̺] 'sixteen' Apart from a few loanwords, occurs as a result of vowel elision leading to sandhi. See Portuguese phonology
European, central-southern [d͡zɐˈsɐjʃ]
Brazilian dezessete [d͡ze̞ˈsɛt͡ʃɪ] 'seventeen'
Northern Qiang  ? [ɣd͡zə] 'rabbit'
Ubykh [məˈdza] 'light' See Ubykh phonology
West Frisian widze [ˈʋɪd͡zǝ] 'cradle'
Yi /zzy [d͡zɪ˧] 'ride'

Voiced alveolar fronted sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced alveolar fronted sibilant affricate
d̪͡z̪
d͡z̪
d̟͡z̟
d͡z̟
Sound

The voiced alveolar fronted sibilant affricate (commonly called voiced dental sibilant affricate) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. In the International Phonetic Alphabet it's commonly represented as d̪͡z̪ and d͡z̪, combinations of the letter for the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate and a diacritic (or two) indicating dental articulation. However, teeth actively participate in the articulation only in case of the stop component, which is laminal denti-alveolar. The fricative component, the features of which are used to describe the affricate is laminal alveolar fronted (post-dental). Therefore, a notation d̟͡z̟ and d͡z̟ (combinations of the letter for the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate and a diacritic (or two) indicating fronted articulation) would be more appropriate. This article uses d̪͡z̪ for simplicity.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar fronted sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar fronted (post-dental), which means it's articulated with the tongue blade against the alveolar ridge, but more front than usual: just behind the upper teeth.
  • Its place of active articulation is laminal, meaning that the tongue blade (the part just behind the top) contacts the alveolar ridge, with the tongue tip resting behind the lower front teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[4] ձուկ About this sound [d̪͡z̪uk]  'snow'
Belarusian[5] дзеканне [ˈd̪͡z̪ekän̪ʲe] 'dzekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Croatian[6] otac bi [ǒt̪äd̪͡z̪ bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Czech[7] Afgánec byl [ˈävɡäːnɛd̪͡z̪ bɪɫ̪] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Hungarian[8] bodza [ˈbod̪͡z̪ːɒ] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[9][10] zero [ˈd̪͡z̪ɛːɾo] 'zero' z may also represent /t͡s/. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[11] [example needed]
Latvian[12] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[13] ѕвезда [ˈd̪͡z̪ve̞z̪d̪ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Polish[14] dzwon About this sound [d̪͡z̪vɔn̪]  'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[15] плацдарм [pɫ̪ɐd̪͡z̪ˈd̪är̠m] 'bridge-head' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Slovak sadzba [ˈsäd̪͡z̪bä] 'tariff'
Slovene[16] brivec brije [IPA needed] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.
Ukrainian[17] дзвін [d̪͡z̪vin̪] 'bell' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[18] [example needed] Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
d͡ð̠
d͡ð̳

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian Sicily[19] Adriatico [äd͡ð̠iˈäːt̪iko] 'The Adriatic Sea' Apical.[19] Regional realization of the sequence /dr/;[19] may be a sequence [dð̠] instead.[20] See Italian phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bertinetto, Marco; Loporcaro, Michele (2005), "The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 131–151, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002148 
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Chew, Peter A. (2003), A computational phonology of Russian, Universal Publishers 
  • Hualde, José (1992), Catalan, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05498-2 
  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, p. 52, ISBN 3895860352 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje 
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-228-2 
  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, ISBN 5-343-00292-7 
  • Palková, Zdena (1994), Fonetika a fonologie češtiny, ISBN 978-8070668436 
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski 
  • Rocławski, Bronisław (1976), Zarys fonologii, fonetyki, fonotaktyki i fonostatystyki współczesnego języka polskiego, Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina 
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–107, ISBN 0-521-65236-7