Voiced palato-alveolar affricate

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Voiced palato-alveolar affricate
d͡ʒ
d͜ʒ
d̠ʲʒ
IPA number 104 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPA dZ or d_r_jZ
Kirshenbaum dZ
Sound

The voiced palato-alveolar affricate, also described as voiced domed postalveolar affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡ʒ (formerly the ligature ʤ), or in broad transcription ɟ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ǰ, ǧ, ǯ, and . It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of j in jump.

Some scholars use the symbol /d͡ʒ/ to transcribe the laminal variant of the voiced retroflex affricate. In such cases, the voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant is transcribed /d͡ʒʲ/.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аџыр [ad͡ʒər] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe джанэ About this sound [d͡ʒaːna]  'dress'
Albanian xham [d͡ʒam] 'glass'
Amharic እንጀራ [ɨnd͡ʒəra] 'injera'
Arabic Standard[1] جـرس jaras [d͡ʒaras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ջուր [d͡ʒuɾ] 'water'
Western ճանճ [d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ] 'fly'
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Bengali [d͡ʒɔl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Berber Kabyle lIran [ld͡ʒiran] 'the neighbors'
Bulgarian джудже [ˈd͡ʒud͡ʒe] 'dwarf'
Chechen джерво / dzhyerwo [d͡ʒjerwo] 'previously married woman'
Coptic ϫ [d͡ʒe] 'that'
Czech čba [lɛːd͡ʒba] 'treatment' See Czech phonology
English jump [ˈd͡ʒʌmp] 'jump ' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [maɲˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gestir [ˈd͡ʒɛstɪɹ] 'guests '
French adjonction [ad͡ʒɔ̃k͡sjɔ̃] 'addition' See French phonology
Georgian[3] იბე [d͡ʒibɛ] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel [ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal[4] and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See German phonology
Goemai [d͡ʒaːn] 'twins'
Hebrew ג׳וק [d͡ʒuk] 'cockroach' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani जाना / جــانا [d͡ʒɑːnɑː] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian lándzsa [laːnd͡ʒɒ] 'spear' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] gemma [ˈd͡ʒɛmma] 'gem' See Italian phonology
Indonesian jarak [ˈd͡ʒarak] 'distance'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kurdish cîger [d͡ʒiɡɛɾ] 'lung'
Kyrgyz жаман [d͡ʒaman] 'bad'
Macedonian џемпер [ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [d͡ʒahat] 'evil'
Manchu ᠵᡠᠸᡝ [d͡ʒuwe] 'two'
Marathi [d͡ʒəj] 'victory' See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien jove [ˈd͡ʒuβe] 'young'
Provençal [ˈd͡ʒuve]
Ojibwe ? [iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto جــګ [d͡ʒeɡ] 'high'
Persian کُـجــا [kod͡ʒɒ] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna dziwny [ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ] 'strange' /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[7]
Malbork dialect[7]
Ostróda dialect[7]
Warmia dialect[7]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[8] grande [ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/. May be palatalized. Even if unstressed rhyme [i] or [ɪ] is deleted as often, /d/ will still affricate
Most dialects jambalaya [d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [d͡ʒer] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese géneru [ˈd͡ʒɛneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [d͡ʒia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers џем / em [d͡ʒê̞m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[9] [example needed] These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[9]
Somali joog [d͡ʒoːɡ] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Spanish Many dialects cónyuge [ˈkõ̞ɲd͡ʒuxe̞] 'spouse' May correspond to [ɟʝ] in Castilian Spanish, or be a stigmatized dialectal realization of /ʝ/ and /ʎ/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects ayudar [ad͡ʒuˈð̞ar] 'to help'
Turkish acı [äˈd͡ʒɯ] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [d͡ʒär] 'ravine'
Ubykh [amd͡ʒan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian джерело [d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur جـوزا [d͡ʒozɑ] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian siedzje [ʃɪd͡ʒǝ] 'to sow'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[10] dxan [d͡ʒaŋ] 'god'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press