|Position in alphabet||16|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
Ayin or Ayn (Hebrew: [ajin, ʕajin, ʔajin][see below] Arabic: [ʕajn][see below]) is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 𐤏, Aramaic 𐡏, Hebrew ע, and Arabic ع (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only). ﻉ comes twenty‐first in the New Persian alphabet and eighteenth in Arabic hija’i order.
The ʿayin glyph in these various languages represents, or has represented, a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ʕ/), or a similarly articulated consonant, which has no equivalent or approximate substitute in the sound‐system of English. There are many possible transliterations, most commonly ʿ, U+02BF ʿ modifier letter left half ring (HTML
. To this day, ʿayin in Hebrew, Arabic, Amharic, and Maltese means "eye" and "spring" (ʿayno in Neo-Aramaic).
The sound represented by ayin is common to much of the Afrasiatic language family, such as the Egyptian, Cushitic, and Semitic languages. Some scholars believe that the sound in Proto-Indo-European transcribed h3 was similar, though this is debatable. (See Laryngeal theory.)
ʿAyin is usually transliterated into the Latin alphabet with ʿ, (U+02BF) "modifier letter left half ring" (in the Spacing Modifier Letters range). This is true in DIN 31635 romanization of Arabic. This symbol originated from Semitic romanization and Egyptological transliteration, where it was inspired by the Greek spiritus asper. Example: The name of the letter itself, ʿayin.
As a substitute for the left half ring, other symbols resembling it are sometimes used, such as a superscript c (c), ʻ (U+02BB MODIFIER LETTER TURNED COMMA) as in ALA-LC romanization of Arabic, a single opening quotation mark (‘) (U+2018), the grave accent (`), ˁ (U+02C1 MODIFIER LETTER REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP), or the IPA pharyngeal symbols [ʕ] (U+0295 LATIN LETTER PHARYNGEAL VOICED FRICATIVE) and [ˤ] (U+02E4 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP). However, such substitutions obviously may cause confusion, such as with the glottal stop consonant hamza.
In loanwords, ʿayin is commonly omitted altogether. Examples: Iraq العراق al-ʿIrāq, Oman عمان ʿUmān, Saudi Arabia العربية السعودية al-ʿArabiyyah as-Saʿūdiyyah, Arab or Arabic عربي, ʿArabī, Amman عمان ʿAmmān, etc.
Specifically for use in transliterating the Egyptian language, Ꜥ (U+A724 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN) and ꜥ (U+A725 LATIN SMALL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN) were added to the Latin Extended-D range in Unicode version 5.1.
The informal way to represent it in Arabic chat alphabet uses the digit 3 as transliteration.
|Various print fonts||Cursive
Hebrew spelling: עַיִן
Ayin has traditionally been described as a voiced pharyngeal fricative ([ʕ]). However, this may be imprecise. Although a pharyngeal fricative has occasionally been observed for ayin in Arabic, and so therefore may occur in Hebrew as well, the sound is more commonly epiglottal ([ʢ]), and may also be a pharyngealized glottal stop ([ʔˤ]).
In some historical Sephardi and Ashkenazi pronunciations, ʿayin represented a velar nasal ([ŋ]) sound, as in English singing. Remnants of this can be found in the Yiddish pronunciations of some words such as /ˈjaŋkəv/ and /ˈmansə/ from Hebrew יַעֲקֹב (yaʿăqōḇ, "Jacob") and מַעֲשֶׂה (maʿăse, "story"), but in other cases the nasal has disappeared and been replaced by /j/, such as /ˈmajsə/ and /ˈmajrəv/ from Hebrew מַעֲשֶׂה and מַעֲרָב (maʿărāḇ, "west"). In Israeli Hebrew (except for Mizrahi pronunciations) it represents a glottal stop in certain cases, but is mostly silent (that is, it behaves the same as aleph). However, often changes in adjoining vowels testify to the former presence of a pharyngeal or epiglottal articulation. As well, it may be used as a shibboleth to identify the social background of a speaker, as Mizrahim and Arabs tend to use the more traditional glottal stop in almost all cases.
Ayin is also one of the three letters that can take a furtive patach / patach ganuv.
In Hebrew loanwords in Greek and Latin, ayin is sometimes reflected as /g/, since the biblical phonemes /ʕ/ (or "ʿ") and /ʁ/ (represented by "g") were both represented in Hebrew writing by the letter ʿayin (see Ġain). Because of this, we get Gomorrah from the original /ʁamora/ (modern ʿAmora) and Gaza from the original /ʁazza/ (ʿAza) (although Gaza is Ghaza in Arabic).
In gematria, ayin represents the number 70.
The Arabic letter ﻉ (called ﻋﻴﻦ ʿayn) is the eighteenth letter of the alphabet. It is written in one of several ways depending on its position in the word:
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
ʿAyn, coming from the middle of the throat, is one of the most common letters in Arabic and one of the most notoriously difficult sounds for Western learners to pronounce or hear. One piece of advice for people trying to make the ʿayn sound is to "sing the lowest possible note, then one lower". Due to its position as the innermost letter to emerge from the throat, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, who wrote the first Arabic dictionary, actually started writing with ʿayn as the first letter instead of the eighteenth; he viewed its origins deep down in the throat as a sign that it was the first sound, the essential sound, the voice and a representation of the self.
As in Hebrew, the letter originally stood for two sounds, the other being /ʕ/ and /ʁ/. When pointing was developed, ġayn was distinguished with a dot on top (غ) for /ʁ/. In Maltese, which is written with the Latin alphabet, the digraph għ, which is known by its Arabic name ʿajn, is used to write what was originally the same sound.
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER AYIN||ARABIC LETTER AIN||SYRIAC LETTER E||SAMARITAN LETTER IN||LATIN LETTER AIN|
|UTF-8||215 162||D7 A2||216 185||D8 B9||220 165||DC A5||224 160 143||E0 A0 8F||225 180 165||E1 B4 A5|
|Numeric character reference||ע||ע||ع||ع||ܥ||ܥ||ࠏ||ࠏ||ᴥ||ᴥ|
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER AIN||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER AYIN||PHOENICIAN LETTER AIN|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 147||F0 90 8E 93||240 144 161 143||F0 90 A1 8F||240 144 164 143||F0 90 A4 8F|
|UTF-16||55296 57235||D800 DF93||55298 56399||D802 DC4F||55298 56591||D802 DD0F|
|Numeric character reference||𐎓||𐎓||𐡏||𐡏||𐤏||𐤏|
- Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Oxford: Blackwells. ISBN 0-631-19814-8
- Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, The Mute Immortals Speak: Pre-Islamic Poetry and the Poetics of Ritual, pg. 178. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780801427640