Inverted breve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ̑)
Jump to: navigation, search
̑
Inverted breve
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ȃ ȃ
Ȇ ȇ
Ȋ ȋ
Ȏ ȏ
Ȗ ȗ
Ȓ ȓ

Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (   ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve ( ˘ ). It looks similar to the circumflex ( ˆ ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip, whilst the inverted breve is rounded: compare  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) with Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve). Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet, but only as a phonetic indicator, though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.

Uses[edit]

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (ȃ ȇ ȋ ȏ ȗ) or syllabic ȓ.

This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.

International Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, inverted breve below is used to denote that the vowel is not syllabic. Thus, semivowels are transcribed either using dedicated symbols (of which there are only a few, e.g. [j, w, ɥ]) or by adding the diacritic to a vowel sound (e.g. [i̯, u̯]), enabling more possible semivowels (e.g. [ɐ̯, ʏ̯, e̯]).

The same diacritic is placed under iota (ι̯) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve (υ̯) is used alongside digamma to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.[1]

Encoding[edit]

Inverted breve characters are supported in Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference).

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Combining Inverted Breve   ̑ U+0311 ̑
Combining Inverted Breve Below   ̯ U+032F ̯
Combining Double Inverted Breve   ͡ U+0361 ͡
Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve Ȃ U+0202 Ȃ
Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve ȃ U+0203 ȃ
Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve Ȇ U+0206 Ȇ
Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve ȇ U+0207 ȇ
Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve Ȋ U+020A Ȋ
Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve ȋ U+020B ȋ
Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve Ȏ U+020E Ȏ
Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve ȏ U+020F ȏ
Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve Ȓ U+0212 Ȓ
Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve ȓ U+0213 ȓ
Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve Ȗ U+0216 Ȗ
Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve ȗ U+0217 ȗ

In LaTeX the control \textroundcap{o} puts an inverted breve over the letter o.[2]

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]