Breve

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˘
Breve
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ă ă
Ĕ ĕ
Ğ ğ
Ĭ ĭ
Ŏ ŏ
Ŭ ŭ

A breve (/ˈbrv/; French: brève [ˈbʁɛv]; from the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritical mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek, it is also called vrachy or brachy. It resembles the caron (the wedge or háček in Czech), but is rounded, while the caron has a sharp tip. Compare Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ (caron) with Ă ă Ĕ ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭ (breve).

Length[edit]

The breve sign indicates a short vowel, as opposed to the macron ¯ which indicates long vowels, in academic transcription. It is often used this way in dictionaries and textbooks of Latin, Ancient Greek, Tuareg and other languages. (However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only the long vowels: it is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short.)

In Cyrillic script, a breve is used for Й. In Belarusian, it is used for both the Cyrillic Ў (semivowel U) and in the Latin (Łacinka) Ŭ. Ў was also used in Cyrillic Uzbek under the Soviet Union. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet uses a breve for Ӂ (the equivalent of G before E or I in the Latin script). In Chuvash, a breve is used for Cyrillic letters Ӑ (A-breve) and Ӗ (E-breve). Note that traditional Cyrillic breve differs in shape, being thicker on the edges of the curve and thinner in the middle, from the Latin one. In Latin types, the shape becomes “ears”-like.[1]

In Esperanto, it is used above the u to form a non-syllabic u, similar to the sound of an English w.

In the transcription of Sinhala, the breve over an m or an n indicates a prenasalized consonant; for example, n̆da is used to represent [ⁿda].

Other uses[edit]

In other languages, it is used for other purposes.

Note that Pinyin uses the caron, not the breve, to indicate the third tone of Mandarin Chinese; the breve cannot be used as a substitute in computer environments.

Encoding[edit]

Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference) for breve characters.

Name Letter Unicode HTML
breve (single)   ̆ U+02D8 ˘
combining breve   ̆ U+0306 ̆
combining breve below   ̮ U+032E ̮
combining inverted breve below   ̯ U+032F ̯
Latin
A-breve Ă
ă
U+0102
U+0103
Ă
ă
E-breve Ĕ
ĕ
U+0114
U+0115
Ĕ
ĕ
I-breve Ĭ
ĭ
U+012C
U+012D
Ĭ
ĭ
O-breve Ŏ
ŏ
U+014E
U+014F
Ŏ
ŏ
U-breve Ŭ
ŭ
U+016C
U+016D
Ŭ
ŭ
Azerbaijani, Tatar, Turkish
G-breve Ğ
ğ
U+011E
U+011F
Ğ
ğ
Vietnamese
A-sắc-breve
U+1EAE
U+1EAF
Ắ
ắ
A-huyền-breve
U+1EB0
U+1EB1
Ằ
ằ
A-hỏi-breve
U+1EB2
U+1EB3
Ẳ
ẳ
A-ngã-breve
U+1EB4
U+1EB5
Ẵ
ẵ
A-nặng-breve
U+1EB6
U+1EB7
Ặ
ặ
Cyrillic
short I Й
й
U+0419
U+0439
Й
й
short U Ў
ў
U+040E
U+045E
Ў
ў
A-breve Ӑ
ӑ
U+04D0
U+04D1
Ӑ
ӑ
Ye-breve Ӗ
ӗ
U+04D6
U+04D7
Ӗ
ӗ
Greek
alpha with vrachy
U+1FB8
U+1FB0
Ᾰ
ᾰ
iota with vrachy
U+1FD8
U+1FD0
Ῐ
ῐ
upsilon with vrachy
U+1FE8
U+1FE0
Ῠ
ῠ
Arabic, Hittite, Akkadian, Egyptian transliteration
H-breve below
U+1E2A
U+1E2B
Ḫ
ḫ

In LaTeX the controls \u{o} and \breve{o} puts a breve over the letter o.

International Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

Name Letter Unicode HTML
IPA
overshort low central unrounded vowel ä̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort open back rounded vowel ɒ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort mid front unrounded vowel ĕ̞ U+???? &#???;
overshort open back rounded vowel ɒ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort close front unrounded vowel ĭ U+???? &#???;
overshort close central unrounded vowel ɨ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort close back rounded vowel ŭ U+???? &#???;
overshort near-open central rounded vowel ɐ̹̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort close-mid front rounded vowel ø̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort open-mid back rounded vowel ɔ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort Near-close back rounded vowel ŭ̞ U+???? &#???;
overshort near-close back unrounded vowel ɯ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort Near-open central unrounded vowel ɐ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort close central rounded vowel ʉ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort open-mid front unrounded vowel ɛ̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort mid central unrounded vowel ə̆ U+???? &#???;
overshort close-mid back rounded vowel ŏ U+???? &#???;
overshort near-close front unrounded vowel ɪ̆ U+???? &#???;

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Бреве кириллическое, "кратка"" [Cyrillic breve ("kratka")] (in Russian). ParaType. 
  2. ^ For example, that word 한글 han-geul is romanized in McCune-Reischauer as han'gŭl. The spelling han-geul is based on South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean adopted in 2000 in part for ease in computer use, not on McCune-Reischauer. It is common, for convenience, to omit writing all diacritical marks in McCune Reishchauer including breves, in which case the word is spelled hangul not han'gŭl. North Korea uses a variant of McCune-Reischauer that also utilizes breves for those two vowels.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using breve sign ( ◌̆ )
Ăă Ĕĕ Ğğ Ĭ ĭ Ŏŏ Ŭŭ
Related