Tie (typography)

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Tie
Punctuation
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Uncommon typography
asterism
hedera
index, fist
interrobang
irony punctuation
lozenge
reference mark
tie
Related
In other scripts

The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, or non-spacing as a diacritic. It can be above or below, and reversed. Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon or papyrological hyphen, ligature tie, and undertie.

Uses[edit]

Greek[edit]

The enotikon (ενωτικόν, enōtikón, lit. "uniter"), papyrological hyphen, or Greek hyphen was a low tie mark found in late Classical and Byzantine papyri.[1] In an era when Greek texts were typically written scripta continua, the enotikon served to show that a series of letters should be read as a single word rather than misunderstood as two separate words. (Its companion mark was the hypodiastole, which showed that a series of letters should be understood as two separate words.[2]) Although modern Greek now uses the Latin hyphen, ELOT included mention of the enotikon in its romanization standard[3] and Unicode is able to reproduce the symbol with its characters U+203F   ‿ undertie and U+035C  ͜  combining double breve below.[2][4]

The enotikon was also used in Greek musical notation, as a slur under two notes. When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme overline.[4]

International Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties: the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.

Ligature tie[edit]

The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).

On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361   ͡ combining double inverted breve and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C   ͜ combining double breve below.

Undertie[edit]

The undertie is used to represent linking (absence of a break) in the IPA. For example it is used to indicate liaison (e.g. /vuz‿ave/) but can also be used for other types of sandhi.

On computers, the character used is U+203F undertie, a spacing character, which is not to be confused with a͜b U+035C ͜ combining double breve below, a combining diacritic, used as an alternative to the ligature tie ab͡ U+0361 ͡ combining double inverted breve.[5]

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses several forms of the tie or double breve:[6][7]

  • The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthong
  • The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthong
  • The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowels
  • The undertie is used for prosody
  • The inverted undertie is used for prosody.

Other uses[edit]

Various forms of the tie

The double breve is used in the phonetic notation of the American Heritage Dictionary in combination with a double o, o͝o, to represent the near-close near-back vowel (ʊ in IPA).[8]

The triple breve below is used in the phonetic writing Rheinische Dokumenta for three letter combinations.[9]

The character tie is used for sequence concatenation in Z notation. It is encoded with U+2040 character tie in Unicode. For example "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t; and the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.[10]

The ligature tie is used in the logotypes of mobilkom Austria and its A1 brand.

Encoding[edit]

name character HTML code Unicode Unicode name sample
non-spacing
double breve  ͝  ͝ U+035D combining double breve o͝o
ligature tie  ͡  ͡ U+0361 combining double inverted breve /k͡p/
ligature tie below,
enotikon
 ͜  ͜ U+035C combining double breve below /k͜p/
spacing
undertie,
enotikon
‿ U+203F undertie /vuz‿ave/
tie ⁀ U+2040 character tie s⁀t
inverted undertie ⁔ U+2054 inverted undertie o⁔o

The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.

Unicode has characters similar to the tie:

  • U+23DC top parenthesis and U+23DD bottom parenthesis
  • U+2322 frown and U+2323 smile
  • U+2050 close up, which is a proofreading mark

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicholas, Nick. "Greek Unicode Issues: Greek /h/". 2005. Accessed 7 Oct 2014.
  2. ^ a b Nicolas, Nick. "Greek Unicode Issues: Punctuation". 2005. Accessed 7 Oct 2014.
  3. ^ Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης [Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs, "Hellenic Organization for Standardization"]. ΕΛΟΤ 743, 2η Έκδοση [ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī, "ELOT 743, 2nd ed."]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. (Greek).
  4. ^ a b Ancient Greek music, Martin Litchfield West, 1994, p. 267.
  5. ^ SC2/WG2 N2594 - Proposal to encode combining double breve below
  6. ^ Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS, 2002-03-20.
  7. ^ Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Klaas Ruppel, Tero Aalto, Michael Everson, 2009-01-27.
  8. ^ Proposal for 3 Additional Double Diacritics, 2002-05-10.
  9. ^ Proposal to encode a combining diacritical mark for Low German dialect writing, Karl Pentzlin, 2008-10-25
  10. ^ The Z Notation: a reference manual, J. M. Spivey.