FOSB

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FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B
Identifiers
Symbols FOSB ; AP-1; G0S3; GOS3; GOSB
External IDs OMIM164772 MGI95575 HomoloGene31403 GeneCards: FOSB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE FOSB 202768 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2354 14282
Ensembl ENSG00000125740 ENSMUSG00000003545
UniProt P53539 P13346
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001114171 NM_008036
RefSeq (protein) NP_001107643 NP_032062
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
45.97 – 45.98 Mb
Chr 7:
19.3 – 19.31 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B also known as FOSB or FosB is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.[1][2][3]

The FOS gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family (e.g., c-Jun, JunD), thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation.[1] FosB and its truncated splice variants ΔFosB and (further truncated) Δ2ΔFosB are all involved in osteosclerosis, even though Δ2ΔFosB lacks a known transactivation domain, preventing it from affecting gene transcription through the AP-1 complex.[4]

The ΔFosB splice variant has been identified as playing a central, crucial (necessary and sufficient)[5][6] role in the development of many forms of behavioral plasticity and neuroplasticity involved in both behavioral addictions (associated with natural rewards) and drug addictions.[5][7][8] ΔFosB differs from the full length FosB and further truncated Δ2ΔFosB in its capacity to produce these effects, as only accumbal ΔFosB overexpression is associated with pathological responses to drugs.[9]

ΔFosB[edit]

ΔFosB or Delta FosB is a truncated splice variant of FosB.[10] ΔFosB has been implicated as a critical factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions.[6][11][7] In the brain's reward system, it is linked to changes in a number of other gene products, such as CREB and sirtuins.[12][13][14] In the body, ΔFosB regulates the commitment of mesenchymal precursor cells to the adipocyte or osteoblast lineage.[15]

In the nucleus accumbens, ΔFosB functions as a "molecular switch" and "master control protein" in the development of an addiction;[5][16][17] in other words, once "turned on" (sufficiently overexpressed) ΔFosB triggers a series of transcription events that ultimately result in addictive behavior. Based upon the accumulated evidence, a medical review from late 2014 argued that accumbal ΔFosB expression can be used as an addiction biomarker and that the degree of accumbal ΔFosB induction by a drug is a metric for how addictive it is relative to others.[5]

Role in addiction[edit]

Addiction glossary[18][8]
addiction – a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences
reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them
rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive or as something to be approached
addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing
addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing
sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it
drug tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
drug dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated drug intake
physical dependence – dependence that involves physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue)
psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)
(edit | history)

Signaling cascade in the nucleus accumbens that results in psychostimulant addiction

This diagram depicts the signaling events in the brain's reward center that are induced by chronic high-dose exposure to psychostimulants that increase the concentration of synaptic dopamine, like amphetamine, methylphenidate, phenethylamine, and cocaine. Following presynaptic dopamine and glutamate co-release by such psychostimulants, postsynaptic receptors for these neurotransmitters trigger internal signaling events through a cAMP pathway and calcium-dependent pathway that ultimately result in increased CREB phosphorylation.[19][20] Phosphorylated CREB increases levels of ΔFosB, which in turn represses the c-fos gene with the help of corepressors.[20] A highly stable (phosphorylated) form of ΔFosB, one that persists in neurons for one or two months, slowly accumulates following repeated exposure to stimulants through this process.[16][21] ΔFosB functions as "one of the master control proteins" that produces addiction-related structural changes in the brain, and upon sufficient accumulation, with the help of its downstream targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B), it induces an addictive state.[16][21]

Current models of addiction from chronic addictive drug use involve alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projection.[6][22][23] The most important transcription factors that produce these alterations are ΔFosB, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB).[6] ΔFosB is the most significant gene transcription factor in addiction since its viral or genetic overexpression in the nucleus accumbens is necessary and sufficient for many of the neural adaptations seen in drug addiction;[6] it has been implicated in addictions to alcohol, cannabinoids, cocaine, nicotine, phenylcyclidine, opiates, and substituted amphetamines.[6][22][24] ΔJunD is the transcription factor which directly opposes ΔFosB.[6] Increases in nucleus accumbens ΔJunD expression using viral vectors (a genetically engineered virus) can reduce or, with a large increase, even block many of the neural and behavioral alterations seen in chronic drug abuse (i.e., the alterations mediated by ΔFosB).[6]

ΔFosB also plays an important role in regulating behavioral responses to natural (non-drug) rewards, such as palatable food, sex, and exercise.[6][11] Natural rewards, like drugs of abuse, induce gene expression of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens, and chronic acquisition of these rewards can result in a similar pathological addictive state through ΔFosB overexpression.[6][11][7] Consequently, ΔFosB is the key transcription factor involved in addictions to natural rewards (i.e., behavioral addictions) as well;[6][11][7] in particular, ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the reinforcing effects of sexual reward.[11] Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine) and sexual behavior act on similar biomolecular mechanisms to induce ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens and possess bidirectional cross-sensitization effects that are mediated through ΔFosB.[25][7] This phenomenon is notable since, in humans, a dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by drug-induced compulsive engagement in natural rewards (specifically, sexual activity, shopping, and gambling), has also been observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications.[7]

ΔFosB inhibitors (drugs or treatments that oppose its action or reduce its expression) may be an effective treatment for addiction and addictive disorders.[26]

Plasticity in cocaine addiction[edit]

ΔFosB levels have been found to increase upon the use of cocaine.[27] Each subsequent dose of cocaine continues to increase ΔFosB levels with no ceiling of tolerance. Elevated levels of ΔFosB leads to increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which in turn increases the number of dendritic branches and spines present on neurons involved with the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex areas of the brain. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. This consequence of cocaine use may contribute to sensitization to the drug.

Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible expression of ΔFosB primarily in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum exhibit sensitized behavioural responses to cocaine.[28] They self-administer cocaine at lower doses than control,[29] but have a greater likelihood of relapse when the drug is withheld.[17][29] ΔFosB increases the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2[28] and also decreases expression of dynorphin, thereby enhancing sensitivity to reward.[17]

Other functions[edit]

ΔFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens shell increases resilience to stress and is induced in this region by acute exposure to social defeat stress.[30][31]

ΔFosB overexpression in the striatum (via viral vectors) produces involuntary movements akin to those seen in chronic levodopa treatment of Parkinson's disease.[32]

Summary of addiction-related plasticity[edit]

Form of neural or behavioral plasticity Type of reinforcer Sources
Opiates Psychostimulants High fat or sugar food Sexual reward Exercise Environmental enrichment
ΔFosB expression
in the nucleus accumbens
[7]
Behavioral Plasticity
Escalation of intake Yes Yes Yes [7]
Psychostimulant
cross-sensitization
Yes Not applicable Yes Yes Attenuated Attenuated [7]
Psychostimulant
self-administration
[7]
Psychostimulant
conditioned place preference
[7]
Reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior [7]
Neurochemical Plasticity
CREB phosphorylation
in the nucleus accumbens
[7]
Sensitized dopamine response
in the nucleus accumbens
No Yes No Yes [7]
Altered striatal dopamine signaling DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD1, ↓DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD1, ↓DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD2 DRD2 [7]
Altered striatal opioid signaling μ-opioid receptors μ-opioid receptors
κ-opioid receptors
μ-opioid receptors μ-opioid receptors No change No change [7]
Changes in striatal opioid peptides dynorphin dynorphin enkephalin dynorphin dynorphin [7]
Mesocorticolimbic Synaptic Plasticity
Number of dendrites in the nucleus accumbens [7]
Dendritic spine density in
the nucleus accumbens
No change [7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: FOSB FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B". 
  2. ^ Siderovski DP, Blum S, Forsdyke RE, Forsdyke DR (October 1990). "A set of human putative lymphocyte G0/G1 switch genes includes genes homologous to rodent cytokine and zinc finger protein-encoding genes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (8): 579–587. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.579. PMID 1702972. 
  3. ^ Martin-Gallardo A, McCombie WR, Gocayne JD, FitzGerald MG, Wallace S, Lee BM, Lamerdin J, Trapp S, Kelley JM, Liu LI (April 1992). "Automated DNA sequencing and analysis of 106 kilobases from human chromosome 19q13.3". Nat. Genet. 1 (1): 34–39. doi:10.1038/ng0492-34. PMID 1301997. 
  4. ^ Sabatakos G, Rowe GC, Kveiborg M, Wu M, Neff L, Chiusaroli R, Philbrick WM, Baron R (May 2008). "Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity". J. Bone Miner. Res. 23 (5): 584–595. doi:10.1359/jbmr.080110. PMC 2674536. PMID 18433296. 
  5. ^ a b c d Ruffle JK (November 2014). "Molecular neurobiology of addiction: what's all the (Δ)FosB about?". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 40 (6): 428–437. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.933840. PMID 25083822.
    ΔFosB as a therapeutic biomarker
    The strong correlation between chronic drug exposure and ΔFosB provides novel opportunities for targeted therapies in addiction (118), and suggests methods to analyze their efficacy (119). Over the past two decades, research has progressed from identifying ΔFosB induction to investigating its subsequent action (38). It is likely that ΔFosB research will now progress into a new era – the use of ΔFosB as a biomarker. If ΔFosB detection is indicative of chronic drug exposure (and is at least partly responsible for dependence of the substance), then its monitoring for therapeutic efficacy in interventional studies is a suitable biomarker (Figure 2). Examples of therapeutic avenues are discussed herein. ...

    Conclusions
    ΔFosB is an essential transcription factor implicated in the molecular and behavioral pathways of addiction following repeated drug exposure. The formation of ΔFosB in multiple brain regions, and the molecular pathway leading to the formation of AP-1 complexes is well understood. The establishment of a functional purpose for ΔFosB has allowed further determination as to some of the key aspects of its molecular cascades, involving effectors such as GluR2 (87,88), Cdk5 (93) and NFkB (100). Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are now directly linked to the structural, physiological and behavioral changes observed following chronic drug exposure (60,95,97,102). New frontiers of research investigating the molecular roles of ΔFosB have been opened by epigenetic studies, and recent advances have illustrated the role of ΔFosB acting on DNA and histones, truly as a ‘‘molecular switch’’ (34). As a consequence of our improved understanding of ΔFosB in addiction, it is possible to evaluate the addictive potential of current medications (119), as well as use it as a biomarker for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions (121,122,124). Some of these proposed interventions have limitations (125) or are in their infancy (75). However, it is hoped that some of these preliminary findings may lead to innovative treatments, which are much needed in addiction.
     
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robison AJ, Nestler EJ (November 2011). "Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12 (11): 623–637. doi:10.1038/nrn3111. PMC 3272277. PMID 21989194. ΔFosB has been linked directly to several addiction-related behaviors ... Importantly, genetic or viral overexpression of ΔJunD, a dominant negative mutant of JunD which antagonizes ΔFosB- and other AP-1-mediated transcriptional activity, in the NAc or OFC blocks these key effects of drug exposure14,22–24. This indicates that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for many of the changes wrought in the brain by chronic drug exposure. ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high fat food, sex, wheel running, where it promotes that consumption14,26–30. This implicates ΔFosB in the regulation of natural rewards under normal conditions and perhaps during pathological addictive-like states. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Olsen CM (December 2011). "Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions". Neuropharmacology 61 (7): 1109–1122. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010. PMC 3139704. PMID 21459101. Cross-sensitization is also bidirectional, as a history of amphetamine administration facilitates sexual behavior and enhances the associated increase in NAc DA ... As described for food reward, sexual experience can also lead to activation of plasticity-related signaling cascades. The transcription factor delta FosB is increased in the NAc, PFC, dorsal striatum, and VTA following repeated sexual behavior (Wallace et al., 2008; Pitchers et al., 2010b). This natural increase in delta FosB or viral overexpression of delta FosB within the NAc modulates sexual performance, and NAc blockade of delta FosB attenuates this behavior (Hedges et al, 2009; Pitchers et al., 2010b). Further, viral overexpression of delta FosB enhances the conditioned place preference for an environment paired with sexual experience (Hedges et al., 2009). ... In some people, there is a transition from “normal” to compulsive engagement in natural rewards (such as food or sex), a condition that some have termed behavioral or non-drug addictions (Holden, 2001; Grant et al., 2006a). ... In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in (or compulsive) engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex (Evans et al, 2006; Aiken, 2007; Lader, 2008)."
     Table 1"
  8. ^ a b Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin Neurosci 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681. PMID 24459410. DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type NAc neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement 
  9. ^ Ohnishi YN, Ohnishi YH, Vialou V, Mouzon E, LaPlant Q, Nishi A, Nestler EJ (October 2014). "Functional role of the N-terminal domain of ΔFosB in response to stress and drugs of abuse". Neuroscience 284C: 165–170. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.10.002. PMID 25313003. 
  10. ^ Nakabeppu Y, Nathans D (February 1991). "A naturally occurring truncated form of FosB that inhibits Fos/Jun transcriptional activity". Cell 64 (4): 751–759. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90504-R. PMID 1900040. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Blum K, Werner T, Carnes S, Carnes P, Bowirrat A, Giordano J, Oscar-Berman M, Gold M (2012). "Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms". J. Psychoactive Drugs 44 (1): 38–55. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.662112. PMC 4040958. PMID 22641964. It has been found that deltaFosB gene in the NAc is critical for reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Pitchers and colleagues (2010) reported that sexual experience was shown to cause DeltaFosB accumulation in several limbic brain regions including the NAc, medial pre-frontal cortex, VTA, caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus. Next, the induction of c-Fos, a downstream (repressed) target of DeltaFosB, was measured in sexually experienced and naive animals. The number of mating-induced c-Fos-IR cells was significantly decreased in sexually experienced animals compared to sexually naive controls. Finally, DeltaFosB levels and its activity in the NAc were manipulated using viral-mediated gene transfer to study its potential role in mediating sexual experience and experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance. Animals with DeltaFosB overexpression displayed enhanced facilitation of sexual performance with sexual experience relative to controls. In contrast, the expression of DeltaJunD, a dominant-negative binding partner of DeltaFosB, attenuated sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance, and stunted long-term maintenance of facilitation compared to DeltaFosB overexpressing group. Together, these findings support a critical role for DeltaFosB expression in the NAc in the reinforcing effects of sexual behavior and sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance. ... both drug addiction and sexual addiction represent pathological forms of neuroplasticity along with the emergence of aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in the brain's rewarding circuitry. 
  12. ^ Nestler EJ (October 2008). "Review. Transcriptional mechanisms of addiction: role of DeltaFosB". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363 (1507): 3245–3255. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0067. PMC 2607320. PMID 18640924. 
  13. ^ Renthal W, Nestler EJ (August 2008). "Epigenetic mechanisms in drug addiction". Trends in Molecular Medicine 14 (8): 341–350. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2008.06.004. PMC 2753378. PMID 18635399. 
  14. ^ Renthal W, Kumar A, Xiao G, Wilkinson M, Covington HE, Maze I, Sikder D, Robison AJ, LaPlant Q, Dietz DM, Russo SJ, Vialou V, Chakravarty S, Kodadek TJ, Stack A, Kabbaj M, Nestler EJ (May 2009). "Genome-wide analysis of chromatin regulation by cocaine reveals a role for sirtuins". Neuron 62 (3): 335–348. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.03.026. PMC 2779727. PMID 19447090. 
  15. ^ Sabatakos G, Sims NA, Chen J, Aoki K, Kelz MB, Amling M, Bouali Y, Mukhopadhyay K, Ford K, Nestler EJ, Baron R (September 2000). "Overexpression of DeltaFosB transcription factor(s) increases bone formation and inhibits adipogenesis.". Nature Medicine 6 (9): 985–990. doi:10.1038/79683. PMID 10973317. 
  16. ^ a b c Robison AJ, Nestler EJ (November 2011). "Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12 (11): 623–637. doi:10.1038/nrn3111. PMC 3272277. PMID 21989194. ΔFosB serves as one of the master control proteins governing this structural plasticity. 
  17. ^ a b c Nestler EJ, Barrot M, Self DW (September 2001). "DeltaFosB: a sustained molecular switch for addiction". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (20): 11042–11046. doi:10.1073/pnas.191352698. PMC 58680. PMID 11572966. Although the ΔFosB signal is relatively long-lived, it is not permanent. ΔFosB degrades gradually and can no longer be detected in brain after 1–2 months of drug withdrawal ... Indeed, ΔFosB is the longest-lived adaptation known to occur in adult brain, not only in response to drugs of abuse, but to any other perturbation (that doesn't involve lesions) as well. 
  18. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274. 
  19. ^ Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine – Homo sapiens (human)". KEGG Pathway. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Renthal W, Nestler EJ (2009). "Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 11 (3): 257–268. PMC 2834246. PMID 19877494. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  21. ^ a b Nestler EJ (December 2012). "Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction". Clin. Psychopharmacol. Neurosci. 10 (3): 136–143. doi:10.9758/cpn.2012.10.3.136. PMC 3569166. PMID 23430970. The 35-37 kD ΔFosB isoforms accumulate with chronic drug exposure due to their extraordinarily long half-lives. ... As a result of its stability, the ΔFosB protein persists in neurons for at least several weeks after cessation of drug exposure. ... ΔFosB overexpression in nucleus accumbens induces NFκB 
  22. ^ a b Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ (2006). "Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory". Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29: 565–598. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.113009. PMID 16776597. 
  23. ^ Steiner H, Van Waes V (January 2013). "Addiction-related gene regulation: risks of exposure to cognitive enhancers vs. other psychostimulants". Prog. Neurobiol. 100: 60–80. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.10.001. PMC 3525776. PMID 23085425. 
  24. ^ Kanehisa Laboratories (29 October 2014). "Alcoholism – Homo sapiens (human)". KEGG Pathway. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  25. ^ Pitchers KK, Vialou V, Nestler EJ, Laviolette SR, Lehman MN, Coolen LM (February 2013). "Natural and drug rewards act on common neural plasticity mechanisms with ΔFosB as a key mediator". J. Neurosci. 33 (8): 3434–3442. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4881-12.2013. PMC 3865508. PMID 23426671. Drugs of abuse induce neuroplasticity in the natural reward pathway, specifically the nucleus accumbens (NAc), thereby causing development and expression of addictive behavior. ... Together, these findings demonstrate that drugs of abuse and natural reward behaviors act on common molecular and cellular mechanisms of plasticity that control vulnerability to drug addiction, and that this increased vulnerability is mediated by ΔFosB and its downstream transcriptional targets. ... Sexual behavior is highly rewarding (Tenk et al., 2009), and sexual experience causes sensitized drug-related behaviors, including cross-sensitization to amphetamine (Amph)-induced locomotor activity (Bradley and Meisel, 2001; Pitchers et al., 2010a) and enhanced Amph reward (Pitchers et al., 2010a). Moreover, sexual experience induces neural plasticity in the NAc similar to that induced by psychostimulant exposure, including increased dendritic spine density (Meisel and Mullins, 2006; Pitchers et al., 2010a), altered glutamate receptor trafficking, and decreased synaptic strength in prefrontal cortex-responding NAc shell neurons (Pitchers et al., 2012). Finally, periods of abstinence from sexual experience were found to be critical for enhanced Amph reward, NAc spinogenesis (Pitchers et al., 2010a), and glutamate receptor trafficking (Pitchers et al., 2012). These findings suggest that natural and drug reward experiences share common mechanisms of neural plasticity 
  26. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and addictive disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 384–385. ISBN 9780071481274. 
  27. ^ Hope BT (May 1998). "Cocaine and the AP-1 transcription factor complex". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 844: 1–6. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08216.x. PMID 9668659. 
  28. ^ a b Kelz MB, Chen J, Carlezon WA, Whisler K, Gilden L, Beckmann AM, Steffen C, Zhang YJ, Marotti L, Self DW, Tkatch T, Baranauskas G, Surmeier DJ, Neve RL, Duman RS, Picciotto MR, Nestler EJ (September 1999). "Expression of the transcription factor deltaFosB in the brain controls sensitivity to cocaine". Nature 401 (6750): 272–276. doi:10.1038/45790. PMID 10499584. 
  29. ^ a b Colby CR, Whisler K, Steffen C, Nestler EJ, Self DW (March 2003). "Striatal cell type-specific overexpression of DeltaFosB enhances incentive for cocaine". J. Neurosci. 23 (6): 2488–2493. PMID 12657709. 
  30. ^ "ROLE OF ΔFOSB IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. NESTLER LAB: LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY. Retrieved 6 September 2014. Role of ΔFosB in Depression
    More recently, we have shown that induction of ΔFosB in nucleus accumbens in response to chronic stress represents a positive, adaptive mechanism to help the animal cope with the stress. In the social defeat paradigm, for example, animalsthat are resilient to the deleterious effects of defeat stress show greater induction of ΔFosB than vulnerable animals. Moreover, chronic administration of antidepressant medications induces ΔFosB in nucleus accumbens and the behavioral effects of these treatments can be blocked by blockade of ΔFosB activity in this brain region. Together, these data demonstrate that ΔFosB is a novel mechanism of resilience and a potentially important mediator of antidepressant action. ...
    Interesting comparisons and contrasts with CREB are evident. Both ΔFosB and CREB are induced by stress and by drugs of abuse, yet they exert opposite effects on behavior. CREB reduces behavioral responses to emotional stimuli and induces a depression-like state in the extreme, whereas ΔFosB sensitizes reward and induces antidepressant-like responses. Also, the CREB signal is relatively short-lived, while the ΔFosB signal is long-lived.
     
  31. ^ Furuyashiki T, Deguchi Y (August 2012). "[Roles of altered striatal function in major depression]". Brain Nerve (in Japanese) 64 (8): 919–26. PMID 22868883. 
  32. ^ Cao X, Yasuda T, Uthayathas S, Watts RL, Mouradian MM, Mochizuki H, Papa SM (May 2010). "Striatal overexpression of DeltaFosB reproduces chronic levodopa-induced involuntary movements". J. Neurosci. 30 (21): 7335–7343. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0252-10.2010. PMC 2888489. PMID 20505100. 
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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.