|405 to present|
The Armenian alphabet (Armenian: Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language. It was introduced around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages. During the 1920s orthography reform, a new letter և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, while the letter Ւ ւ was discarded and reintroduced as part of a new letter ՈՒ ու (which was a digraph before).
The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն aybuben (Armenian pronunciation: [ɑjbubɛn]), named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet Ա այբ ayb and Բ բեն ben. The Armenian script's directionality is horizontal left-to-right, like the Latin and Greek alphabets.
|Ա ա||այբ ayb||/ajb/||/ajpʰ/||/ɑ/||a||1|
|Բ բ||բեն ben||/bɛn/||/pʰɛn/||/b/||/pʰ/||b||2|
|Գ գ||գիմ gim||/ɡim/||/kʰim/||/ɡ/||/kʰ/||g||3|
|Դ դ||դա da||/dɑ/||/tʰɑ/||/d/||/tʰ/||d||4|
|Ե ե||եչ yeč||/jɛtʃʰ/||/ɛ/, word-initially /jɛ/6||e||5|
|Զ զ||զա za||/zɑ/||/z/||z||6|
|Է է||է ē1||/ɛː/||/ɛ/||/ɛː/||/ɛ/||ē||7|
|Ը ը||ըթ ët'||/ətʰ/||/ə/||ə||ë||8|
|Թ թ||թօ t'ò||թո t'o||/tʰo/||/tʰ/||tʿ||t’||9|
|Ժ ժ||ժէ žē||ժե že||/ʒɛː/||/ʒɛ/||/ʒ/||ž||10|
|Ի ի||ինի ini||/ini/||/i/||i||20|
|Լ լ||լիւն liwn||լյուն lyown||/lʏn/||/ljun/||/lʏn/||/l/||l||30|
|Խ խ||խէ xē||խե xe||/χɛː/||/χɛ/||/χ/||x||40|
|Ծ ծ||ծա ça||/tsɑ/||/dzɑ/||/ts/||/dz/||c||ç||50|
|Կ կ||կեն ken||/kɛn/||/ɡɛn/||/k/||/ɡ/||k||60|
|Հ հ||հօ hò||հո ho||/ho/||/h/||h||70|
|Ձ ձ||ձա tsa||/dzɑ/||/tsʰɑ/||/dz/||/tsʰ/||j||80|
|Ղ ղ||ղատ ġat||/ɫɑt/||/ʁɑt/||/ʁɑd/||/ɫ/||/ʁ/||ł||ġ||90|
|Ճ ճ||ճէ č̣ē||ճե č̣e||/tʃɛː/||/tʃɛ/||/dʒɛ/||/tʃ/||/dʒ/||č||č̣||100|
|Մ մ||մեն men||/mɛn/||/m/||m||200|
|Յ յ||յի yi||հի hi||/ji/||/hi/||/j/||/h/1, /j/||y||300|
|Ն ն||նու now||/nu/||/n/||n||400|
|Շ շ||շա ša||/ʃɑ/||/ʃ/||š||500|
|Ո ո||ո vo||/o/||/vo/||/o/, word-initially /vo/2||o||600|
|Չ չ||չա ča||/tʃʰɑ/||/tʃʰ/||čʿ||č||700|
|Պ պ||պէ pē||պե pe||/pɛː/||/pɛ/||/bɛ/||/p/||/b/||p||800|
|Ջ ջ||ջէ ǰē||ջե ǰe||/dʒɛː/||/dʒɛ/||/tʃʰɛ/||/dʒ/||/tʃʰ/||ǰ||900|
|Ռ ռ||ռա ṙa||/rɑ/||/ɾɑ/||/r/||/ɾ/||ṙ||1000|
|Ս ս||սէ sē||սե se||/sɛː/||/sɛ/||/s/||s||2000|
|Վ վ||վեւ vew||վեվ vev||/vɛv/||/v/||v||3000|
|Տ տ||տիւն tiwn||տյուն tyown||/tʏn/||/tjun/||/dʏn/||/t/||/d/||t||4000|
|Ր ր||րէ rē||րե re||/ɹɛː/||/ɾɛ/3||/ɹ/||/ɾ/3||r||5000|
|Ց ց||ցօ c'ò||ցո c'o||/tsʰo/||/tsʰ/||cʿ||c’||6000|
|ՈՒ Ու ու||N/A4||ու ow||/u/||/u/||u||ow||N/A|
|(Ւ ւ)||հիւն hiwn||N/A5||/hʏn/||/w/||/v/5||w||7000|
|Փ փ||փիւր p'iwr||փյուր p'yowr||/pʰʏɹ/||/pʰjuɾ/||/pʰʏɾ/||/pʰ/||pʿ||p’||8000|
|Ք ք||քէ k'ē||քե k'e||/kʰɛː/||/kʰɛ/||/kʰ/||kʿ||k’||9000|
|և||և4 jew||N/A||/jev/||N/A||/ev/, word-initially /jev/||ew||N/A|
|Օ օ||օ ò1||N/A||/o/||N/A||/o/||ō||ò||N/A|
|Ֆ ֆ||ֆէ fē||ֆե fe||N/A||/fɛ/||N/A||/f/||f||N/A|
- Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian (help·info) or in Western Armenian (help·info).
- 1.^ Only used in classical orthography, word-initially and in some compound words.
- 2.^ Except in ով /ov/ "who" and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ "those (people)".
- 3.^ Iranian Armenians (a subbranch of Eastern Armenians) pronounce this letter as [ɹ], like in Classical Armenian.
- 4.^ In classical orthography ու and և are respectively considered a digraph and a ligature. In reformed orthography they are separate letters of the alphabet.
- 5.^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու. In classical orthography, the letter usually represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/. The spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու.
- 6.^ Except in the present tense of "to be": եմ /em/ "I am", ես /es/ "you are (sing.)", ենք /enkh/ "we are", եք /ekh/ "you are (pl.)", են /en/ "they are".
Ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures to save space. Some of the commonly used ligatures are: ﬓ (մ+ն), ﬔ (մ+ե), ﬕ (մ+ի), ﬖ (վ+ն), ﬗ (մ+խ), և (ե+ւ), etc. After the invention of printing Armenian typefaces made a wide use of ligatures as well. In the new orthography the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, but a distinct letter with a place in the new alphabetic sequence, before "o".
Armenian punctuation is often placed above and slightly to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation. Armenian punctuation marks include:
- [ « » ] The čakertner are used as ordinary quotation marks (using all vertical, diagonal or curly forms of the English single or double quotes, placed above the baseline near the M-height of uppercase or tall lowercase letters and at the same level as accents, is strongly discouraged in Armenian as they would be too much confusable with other unrelated Armenian punctuations), and they are placed like French guillemets just above the baseline (preferably vertically centered on the middle of the x-height of Armenian lowercase letters).
- [ , ] The storaket is used as a comma, and placed as in English.
- [ ՝ ] The bowt' (which looks like a comma-shaped reversed apostrophe) is used as a short stop, and placed in the same manner as the semicolon, to indicate a pause that is longer than that of a comma, but shorter than that of a colon; in many texts it is replaced by the single opening single quote (a 6-shaped, or mirrored 9-shaped, or descending-wedge-shaped elevated comma), or by a spacing grave accent.
- [ ․ ] The mijaket (whose single dot on the baseline looks like a Latin full stop) is used like an ordinary colon, mainly to separate two closely related (but still independent) clauses, or when a long list of items follows.
- [ ։ ] The verjaket (whose vertically stacked two dots look like a Latin colon) is used as the ordinary full stop, and placed at the end of the sentence (many texts in Armenian replace the verjaket by the Latin colon as the difference is almost invisible at low resolution for normal texts, but the difference may be visible in headings and titles as the dots are often thicker to match the same optical weight as vertical strokes of letters, the dots filling the common x-height of Armenian letters).
- [ ՜ ] The yerkaratzman nshan (which looks like a diagonally rising tilde) is used as an exclamation mark.
- [ ՛ ] The shesht (which looks like a non-spacing acute accent) is used as an emphasis mark, and usually placed over the last vowel of the interjection word to indicates stress.
- [ ՞ ] The hartzakan nshan is used as a question mark and placed after the last vowel of the question word, usually the stressed vowel.
- [ ՚ ] The apat'arj is used as a spacing apostrophe (which looks either like a vertical stick or wedge pointing down, or as an elevated 9-shaped comma, or as a small superscript left-to-right closing parenthese or half ring), only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel, usually /ə/.
- [ ֊ ] The yent'amna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen.
- [ ՟ ] The pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, and was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. It is now obsolete.
ISO 9985 (1996) transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows:
ա բ գ դ ե զ է ը թ ժ ի լ խ ծ կ հ ձ ղ ճ մ յ ն շ ո չ պ ջ ռ ս վ տ ր ց ւ փ ք օ ֆ ու եւ a b g d e z ē ë t’ ž i l x ç k h j ġ č̣ m y n š o č p ǰ ṙ s v t r c’ w p’ k’ ò f ow ew
In linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, slightly different systems are in use (in particular note that č has a different meaning). Hübschmann-Meillet (1913) have
ա բ գ դ ե զ է ը թ ժ ի լ խ ծ կ հ ձ ղ ճ մ յ ն շ ո չ պ ջ ռ ս վ տ ր ց ւ փ ք օ եւ ու ֆ a b g d e z ê ə t‛ ž i l x c k h j ł č m y n š o č‛ p ǰ r̄ s v t r c‛ w p‛ k‛ ô ev u f
History and development
|History of the Armenian language|
Romanization of Armenian
The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Saint Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia (Sahak Partev) in AD 405. Medieval Armenian sources also claim that Mashtots invented the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets around the same time. Traditionally, the following phrase translated from Solomon's Book of Proverbs is said to be the first sentence to be written down in Armenian by Mashtots:
Ճանաչել զիմաստութիւն եւ զխրատ, իմանալ զբանս հանճարոյ:
Čanačʿel zimastutʿiun yev zxrat, imanal zbans hančaroy.
To know wisdom and instruction; to perceive the words of understanding.—Book of Proverbs, 1:2.
Various scripts have been credited with being the prototype for the Armenian alphabet. Pahlavi was the priestly script in Armenia before the introduction of Christianity, and Syriac, along with Greek, was one of the alphabets of Christian scripture. Armenian shows some similarities to both. However, the general consensus is that Armenian is modeled after the Greek alphabet, supplemented with letters from a different source or sources for Armenian sounds not found in Greek. The evidence for this is the Greek order of the Armenian alphabet; the ow ligature for the vowel /u/, as in Greek; and the shapes of some letters which "seem derived from a variety of cursive Greek." It has been speculated by some scholars in African studies, following Dimitri Olderogge, that the Ge'ez script had an influence on certain letter shapes, but this has not been supported by any experts in Armenian studies.
There are four principal calligraphic hands of the script. Erkatagir, or "ironclad letters", seen as Mesrop's original, was used in manuscripts from the 5th to 13th century and is still preferred for epigraphic inscriptions. Bolorgir, or "cursive", was invented in the 10th century and became popular in the 13th. It has been the standard printed form since the 16th century. Notrgir, or "minuscule", was invented for speed, was extensively used in the Armenian diaspora in the 16th to 18th centuries, and later became popular in printing. Sheghagir, or "slanted writing", is now the most common form.
The earliest known example of the script's usage was a dedicatory inscription over the west door of the church of Saint Sarkis in Tekor. Based on the known individuals mentioned in the inscription, it has been dated to the 480s. The earliest known example of usage outside of Armenia is a mid-6th century mosaic inscription in the chapel of St Polyeuctos in Jerusalem. The earliest surviving manuscripts written using Armenian script date from the 7th-8th century.
Certain shifts in the language were at first not reflected in the orthography. The digraph աւ (au) followed by a consonant used to be pronounced [au] (as in luau) in Classical Armenian, but due to a sound shift it came to be pronounced [o], and has since the 13th century been written օ (ō). For example, classical աւր (awr, [auɹ], "day") became pronounced [oɹ], and is now written օր (ōr). (One word has kept aw, now pronounced /av/: աղաւնի "pigeon", and there are a few proper names still having aw before a consonant: Տաւրոս Taurus, Փաւստոս Faustus, etc.) For this reason, today there are native Armenian words beginning with the letter օ (ō) although this letter was taken from the Greek alphabet to write foreign words beginning with o [o].
The number and order of the letters have changed over time. In the Middle Ages two new letters (օ [o], ֆ [f]) were introduced in order to better represent foreign sounds; this increased the number of letters from 36 to 38. From 1922 to 1924, Soviet Armenia adopted a reformed spelling of the Armenian language. The reform changed the digraph ու and the ligature և into two new letters, but it generally did not change the pronunciation of individual letters. The Armenian Diaspora (including all Western Armenians as well as Eastern Armenians in Iran) have rejected the reformed spellings, and continue to use the classical Mashtotsian spelling. They criticize some aspects of the reforms (see the footnotes of the chart) and allege political motives behind them.
One of the Classical accounts about the existence of an Armenian alphabet before Mashtots comes from Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE – 50 CE), who in his writings notes that the work of the renowned Greek philosopher and historian Metrodorus of Scepsis ( ca. 145 BCE – 70 BCE),On Animals, was also translated into Armenian. Metrodorus was a close friend and a court historian of the Armenian Emperor Tigranes the Great. Amongst his great works, Metrodorus also wrote the biography of the King of Kings, Tigranes the Great. Another Third Century Roman History and Church theologian, Hyppolytus of Rome (170-235 CE), in his Chronicle, while writing about the history of the reign of his contemporary, Emperor Alexander Severus (reigned 208-235 CE), mentions that the Armenians are amongst those nations who have their own distinct alphabet.
Philostratus the Athenian, a renowned sophist of Second and Third centuries AD in his The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, wrote:
“And they say that a leopardess was once caught in Pamphylia which was wearing a chain round its neck, and the chain was of gold, and on it was inscribed in Armenian lettering: ‘The king Arsaces to the Nysian god.’” (Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book II, Chapter II, pp. 120-121, tr. by F. C. Conybeare, 1912)
According to the Fifth Century Armenian Historian Movses of Khoren, Bardesanes (154-222 CE) of Edessa, who founded the Gnostic current of the Bardaisanites, went to the Armenian castle of Ani and there read the work of a pre-Christian, Armenian priest by the name of Voghyump, written in the Mithraic (Mehean or Mihrean lit. of Mihr or of Mithra – the Armenian national God of Light, Truth and the Sun) script of the Armenian temples in which, amongst other histories, an episode was noted of the Armenian King Tigranes VII (reigned from 144-161, and again 164-186 CE) erecting a monument on the tomb of his brother, the Mithraic High Priest of the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, Mazhan. Movses of Khoren notes that the renowned scholar Bardesanes, translated this Armenian book into Syriac (Aramaic), and later also into Greek. Another important evidence for the existence of a pre-Mashtotsian alphabet is the fact that the Armenian heathen pantheon included Tir, who was the Patron God of Writing and Science.
A 13th century Armenian historian, Vardan Areveltsi, in his History, notes that during the reign of the Armenian King Leo the Magnificent (reigned 1187-1219), artifacts were found bearing “Armenian inscriptions of the heathen kings of the ancient times…” The evidence that the Armenian scholars of the Middle Ages knew about the existence of a pre-Mashtotsian alphabet can also be found in other medieval works, including the first book composed in Mashtotsian alphabet by the pupil of Mashtots, Koriwn, in the first half of the Fifth Century. Koriwn notes that Mashtots was told of the existence of ancient Armenian letters which he was initially trying to integrate into his own alphabet (according to the research done by Gevork Nazaryan, Armenologist, Historian. To get more information one can also read the research done by Levon Pogosyan http://ru.scribd.com/doc/236975940/%D4%B3%D4%BB%D5%90%D5%94 (p.22)
Although a lot of the ancient Armenian culture was swept aside with the dominance of the new religion, there is still some pagan influence felt today, a reflection of which can be found in that very god, Tir, referred to as the “Writer” or “Grogh” (“Krogh” in Western Armenian). God Tir who was the God of Literature, Science and Art, the God of wisdom, culture, science and studies, was also an interpreter of dreams. Tir was the messenger of the gods. His temple was called “Aramazds grchi divan” and meant for studying sciences. His temple was the seat of oracles, the interpreter of dreams, the defender of arts and letters. Tir was called the scribe of Aramazd.
The problem of the origin of the Armenian alphabet has always been on the focus of the attention of Armenology. Traditionally in scientific circles the opinion that the Armenian alphabet essentially was formed on the base of the Greek, Aramaic and Iranian letters has gained ground.
Vahan Sargsyan proposed a new method to decipher the Armenian letters – the method of internal reconstruction. The author observes the problem of the origin of the Armenian letters apart from the external comparison exclusively basing on data internals of Armenian.
The essence of the internal reconstruction is as follows:
The Armenian alphabet has a national root which derives from rock-carvings dating from the period between V and II millenniums BC, as well as from the symbolic images of celestial bodies, etc..
The internal reconstruction of the Armenian letters is based on the connections between the sounds and characters. In time the Armenian sound have bore certain changes and precisely by those changes was the correspondent modifications of the characters caused. And if the connections between the Armenian sounds are reestablished, thus, in that way the relationship between the letters is reconstructed. In Armenian the sounds do not exist independently from each other, that is why neither the Armenian letters are independent from each other. And everything that has taken place in the system of Armenian soundhas simulataniously been reflected also in the system of the characters of the language – in its alphabet. If we want to etymologize a word we add it to another one, and if we want to explain the origins of any sound we connect it with another one. The same occurs with the Armenian alphabet to decipher the characters of which is possible via adding one letter (character) to the other.
Thus in the internal reconstruction of the characters the mechanisms of the internal reconstruction of words and sounds are applied, that is to say, the order of the development of words and sounds is applicable to the characters too. Leaving the unessential details apart, we can see that three major principles have been affected the formation of the Armenian letters: partition of the grafic image, duplication of the character, metathesis. http://narinnamkn.wordpress.com/2014/08/15/the-origin-of-the-armenian-alphabet/
Use for other languages
For about 250 years, from the early 18th century until around 1950, more than 2000 books in the Turkish language were printed using the Armenian alphabet. Not only did Armenians read this Turkish in Armenian script, so did the non-Armenian (including the Ottoman Turkish) elite. The Armenian script was used alongside the Arabic script on official documents of the Ottoman Empire written in Ottoman Turkish. For instance, the first novel to be written in Turkish in the Ottoman Empire was Vartan Pasha's 1851 Akabi Hikayesi, written in the Armenian script. When the Armenian Duzoglu family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Abdülmecid I, they kept records in Armenian script but in the Turkish language. From the middle of the 19th century, the Armenian alphabet was also used for books written in the Kurdish language in the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in version 1.0, in October 1991. It is assigned the range U+0530–058F. Five Armenian ligatures are encoded in the "Alphabetic presentation forms" block (code point range U+FB13–FB17).
On 15 June 2011, the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) accepted the Armenian dram sign for inclusion in the future versions of the Unicode Standard and assigned a code for the sign - U+058F (֏). In 2012 the sign was finally adopted in the Armenian block of ISO and Unicode international standards.
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
|Armenian subset of Alphabetic Presentation Forms
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
|U+FB1x||ﬓ||ﬔ||ﬕ||ﬖ||ﬗ||(U+FB00–FB12, U+FB18–FB4F omitted)|
ArmSCII is an 8-bit character encoding developed between 1991 and 1999. ArmSCII was popular on the Windows 95 and Windows 98 operating systems. With the development of the Unicode standard and its availability on Microsoft Windows, Linux and OS X operating systems, the ArmSCII encoding has been rendered obsolete.
Arasan-compatible fonts are based on the encoding of the original Arasan font by Hrant Papazian (he started encoding in use since 1986), which simply replaces the Latin characters (amongst others) of the ASCII encoding with Armenian ones. For example, the ASCII code for the Latin character ⟨A⟩ (65) represents the Armenian character ⟨Ա⟩.
An advantage of Arasan-compatible fonts over ArmSCII-8 fonts is that writing does not require the installation of a separate program; once the font is installed and selected for use, one can use their QWERTY keyboard to type in Armenian. A disadvantage over ArmSCII-8 is that an Arasan-compatible font can only be used for one alphabetic script; therefore, the user must change the Font family when creating a multi-script document (e.g. both Armenian and English). Another disadvantage is that Arasan-compatible fonts only come in one native keyboard layout: Western Armenian phonetic. However it is possible to have alternative keyboard layouts via the use of keyboard driver utilities.
While Arasan-compatible fonts were popular among many users on Windows 95 and 98, it has been rendered obsolete by the Unicode standard. However, a few websites continue to use it.
The Arasan font's legacy is the phonetic Armenian keyboard layouts that ship with Windows 2000-XP-2003-Vista-7-8 and Mac OS X, which are almost identical to the Arasan keyboard layout.
The standard Eastern and Western Armenian keyboards are based on the layout of the font Arasan. These keyboard layouts are mostly phonetic, and allow direct access to every character in the alphabet. Because there are more characters in the Armenian alphabet (39) than in Latin (26), some Armenian characters appear on non-alphabetic keys on a conventional QWERTY keyboard (for example, շ maps to ,).
- Armenian numerals
- Classical Armenian orthography
- Reformed Armenian orthography
- Armenian braille
- Armenian calendar
- Romanization of Armenian (includes ISO 9985)
- ArmSCII (single-byte encodings of the Armenian alphabet, also discusses ISO 10585 and the mapping to Unicode)
- Avedis Sanjian, "The Armenian Alphabet". In Daniels & Bright, The Word's Writing Systems, 1996:356–357
- True History and the Religion of India: A Concise Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism, Prakashanand Saraswali, Motilal Banarsidass (2002), ISBN 978-8120817890
- Simon Ager (2010). "Armenian alphabet". Omniglot: writing systems & languages of the world. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Melkonian, Zareh (1990). Գործնական Քերականութիւն — Արդի Հայերէն Լեզուի (Միջին եւ Բարձրագոյն Դասընթացք) (in Armenian) (Fourth ed.). Los Angeles. p. 6.
- Richard Pankhurst. 1998. The Ethiopians: A History. p25
- Donabedian, Patrick; Thierry, Jean-Michel. "Armenian Art", page584. New York, 1989: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0810906259.
- Nersessian, Vreg. "Treasure From the Ark", p36-37. London, 2001: The British Library.
- (Russian) Qypchaq languages. Unesco.kz
- Charles Dowsett, E. Peters. Sayat'-Nova. An 18th-century Troubadour: a Biographical and Literary Study. Peeters Publishers, 1997 ISBN 90-6831-795-4; p. xv
- (Russian) Курдский язык (Kurdish language), Кругосвет (Krugosvet)
- Armenotype - site about Armenian typeface design and typography.
- Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church Library Online (in English, Armenian, and Russian)
Information on Armenian character set encoding.
Armenian Phonetic Keyboard Layout
- Latin-Armenian Transliteration Converts Latin letters into Armenian and vice versa. Supports multiple transliteration tables and spell checking.
- Transliteration schemes for the Armenian alphabet (transliteration.eki.ee)
Unicode Support for Armenian
- ArmUni.exe Freeware ArmSCII to Unicode converter (Windows only).
- Unicode Character Code Chart for Armenian
Armenian Orthography converters
- Nayiri.com (integrated orthography converter: reformed to classical)