Gha (Indic)

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Gha
Devanagari Bengali Gurmukhi Gujarati Oriya
Gha Gha Gha
Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Sinhala
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Thai Lao Tibetan Burmese Khmer
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Baybayin Hanunoo Buhid Tagbanwa Lontara
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Balinese Sundanese Limbu Tai Le New Tai Lue
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Lepcha Saurashtra Rejang Javanese Cham
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Tai Viet Brahmi Kharoshthi
-- Gha 𐨓
Phonemic representation: /gʱ/
IAST transliteration: gha
ISCII code point: B6 (182)

Gha is the fourth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, gha is derived from the Brahmi letter gha, which is probably derived from the Aramaic Heth.svg ("H/X") after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad gh.svg.

Āryabhaṭa numeration[edit]

Further information: Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of घ are:[1]

  • [gʱə] = 4 (४)
  • घि [gʱɪ] = 400 (४००)
  • घु [gʱʊ] = 40,000 (४० ०००)
  • घृ [gʱri] = 4,000,000 (४० ०० ०००)
  • घॢ [gʱlə] = 4×108 (४०)
  • घे [gʱe] = 4×1010 (४०१०)
  • घै [gʱɛː] = 4×1012 (४०१२)
  • घो [gʱoː] = 4×1014 (४०१४)
  • घौ [gʱɔː] = 4×1016 (४०१६)

Devanagari script[edit]

In all languages, Gha is pronounced as [gʱə] or [] when appropriate.

Bengali script[edit]

ঘ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1. 
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823. 
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.  edit