Cha (Indic)

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Cha
Devanagari Bengali Gurmukhi Gujarati Oriya
Cha Cha Cha
Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Sinhala
-
Thai Lao Tibetan Burmese Khmer
-  
Baybayin Hanunoo Buhid Tagbanwa Lontara
- - - - -
Balinese Sundanese Limbu Tai Le New Tai Lue
-
Lepcha Saurashtra Rejang Javanese Cham
-
Tai Tham Tai Viet Kayah Li Phags-pa Siddhaṃ
-   Siddhaṃ 'Cha'
Mahajani Khojki Khudabadi Syloti Meitei
𑅚 𑈏 𑋁 -
Modi Tirhuta Kaithi Sora Grantha
𑘔 𑒕 𑂓 - 𑌛
Chakma Sharada Takri Kharoshthi Brahmi
𑄍 𑆗 𑚐 𐨖 Brahmi 'Cha'
Phonemic representation: /t͡ʃʰ/
IAST transliteration: cha
ISCII code point: B9 (185)

Cha is the seventh consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, cha is derived from the Brahmi letter ng, which is probably derived from the Aramaic letter Qoph.svg ("Q") after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad ch.svg.

Āryabhaṭa numeration[edit]

Further information: Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of छ are:[1]

Devanagari script[edit]

Cha () is the seventh consonant of the Devanagari abugida. In all languages, छ is pronounced as [t͡ʃʰə] or [t͡ʃʰ] when appropriate. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter છ and the Modi letter 𑘔.

Bengali script[edit]

ছ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Gujarati script[edit]

Cha () is the seventh consonant of the Gujarati script. It is derived from 16th century Devanagari letter cha (छ) with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed.

Gurmukhi script[edit]

Chhachhaa [t͡ʃʰət͡ʃʰːɑ] () is the twefth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [t͡ʃʰət͡ʃʰːɑ] and is pronounced as /t͡ʃʰ/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter cha, and ultimately from the Brahmi cha. Gurmukhi chachaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /t͡ʃʰ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant.

Thai script[edit]

Cho ching () is the ninth letter of the Thai script. It falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. In IPA, cho ching is pronounced as [tɕʰ] at the beginning of a syllable and may not be used to close a syllable. The eighth letter of the alphabet, cho chan (จ), is also named cho and falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. The tenth and twefth letters of the alphabet, cho chang (ช) and cho choe (ฌ), are also named cho, however, they all fall under the low class of Thai consonants. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthuan explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, ching (ฉิ่ง) means ‘cymbals’. Cho ching corresponds to the Sanskrit character ‘छ’.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1. 
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823. 
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.  edit