||This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. (April 2012)|
|Divisors||1, 3, 4, 8|
|Roman numeral (unicode)||Ⅷ, ⅷ|
|Greek||η (or Η)|
- 1 In mathematics
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Glyph
- 4 In science
- 5 In technology
- 6 In culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
8 is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1, 2, and 4. It is twice 4 or four times 2. Eight is a power of two, being (two cubed), and is the first number of the form , p being an integer greater than 1. It has an aliquot sum of 7 in the 4 member aliquot sequence (8,7,1,0) being the first member of 7-aliquot tree. It is symbolized by the Arabic numeral (figure)
All powers of 2 ;(), have an aliquot sum of one less than themselves.
A number is divisible by 8 if its last 3 digits are also divisible by 8.
8 is the order of the smallest non-abelian group all of whose subgroups are normal.
8 and 9 form a Ruth–Aaron pair under the second definition in which repeated prime factors are counted as often as they occur.
There are a total of eight convex deltahedra.
Sphenic numbers always have exactly eight divisors.
The number 8 is involved with a number of interesting mathematical phenomena related to the notion of Bott periodicity. For example if is the direct limit of the inclusions of real orthogonal groups then . Clifford algebras also display a periodicity of 8. For example the algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of 16 by 16 matrices with entries in . We also see a period of 8 in the K-theory of spheres and in the representation theory of the rotation groups, the latter giving rise to the 8 by 8 spinorial chessboard. All of these properties are closely related to the properties of the octonions.
A figure 8 is the common name of a geometric shape, often used in the context of sports, such as skating. Figure-eight turns of a rope or cable around a cleat, pin, or bitt are used to belay something.
In numeral systems
|over 8 (decimal, hexadecimal)||8|
English eight, from Old English eahta, æhta, Proto-Germanic *ahto is a direct continuation of Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓ(w)-, and as such cognate with Greek ὀκτώ and Latin octo-, both of which stems are reflected by the English prefix oct(o)-, as in the ordinal adjective octaval or octavary, the distributive adjective is octonary. The adjective octuple (Latin octu-plus) may also be used as a noun, meaning "a set of eight items"; the diminutive octuplet is mostly used to refer to eight sibling delivered in one birth.
The Semitic numeral is based on a root *θmn-, whence Akkadian smn-, Arabic ṯmn-, Hebrew šmn- etc. The Chinese numeral (pinyin bā) is from an Old Chinese *priāt-, ultimately from Sino-Tibetan b-r-gyat or b-g-ryat which also yielded Tibetan brgyat.
It has been argued that, as the cardinal number seven is the highest number of item that can universially be cognitively processed as a single set, the etymology of the numeral eight might be the first to be considered composite, either as "twice four" or as "two short of ten", or similar. The Turkic words for "eight" are from a Proto-Turkic stem *sekiz, which has been suggested as originating as a negation of eki "two", as in "without two fingers" (i.e. "two short of ten; two fingers are not being held up"); this same principle is found in Finnic *kakte-ksa, which conveys a meaning of "two before (ten)". The Proto-Indo-European reconstruction *oḱtṓ(w)- itself has been argued as representing an old dual, which would correspond to an original meaning of "twice four". Proponents of this "quaternary hypothesis" adduce the numeral nine, which might be built on the stem new-, meaning "new" (indicating the beginning of a "new set of numerals" after having counted to eight).
The modern 8 glyph, like all modern Hindu-Arabic numerals (other than zero) originates with the Brahmi numerals. The Brahmi numeral for eight by the 1st century was written in one stroke as a curve └┐ looking like an uppercase H with the bottom half of the left line and the upper half of the right line removed. However the eight glyph used in India in the early centuries of the Common Era developed considerable variation, and in some cases took the shape of a single wedge, which was adopted into the Perso-Arabic tradition as ٨ (and also gave rise to the later Devanagari numeral ८; the alternative curved glyph also existed as a variant in Perso-Arabic tradition, where it came to look similar to our glyph 5.[year needed]
The numerals as used in Al-Andalus by the 10th century were a distinctive western variant of the glyphs used in the Arabic-speaking world, known as ghubār numerals (ghubār translating to "sand table"). In these numerals, the line of the 5-like glyph used for eight came to be formed into a closed loop, which was the 8-shape adopted into European use in the 10th century.
The infinity symbol ∞, described as "sideways figure eight" is unrelated to the 8 glyph in origin; it is first used (in the mathematical meaning "infinity") in the 17th century, and it may be derived from the Roman numeral for "one thousand" CIƆ, or alternatively from the final Greek letter, ω.
- In nuclear physics, the second magic number.
- In particle physics, the eightfold way is used to classify sub-atomic particles.
- In statistical mechanics, the eight-vertex model has 8 possible configurations of arrows at each vertex.
- Messier object M8, a magnitude 5.0 nebula in the constellation of Sagittarius.
- The New General Catalogue object NGC 8, a double star in the constellation Pegasus.
- The Saros number of the solar eclipse series which began on 2579 BCE 7 March and ended on 1281 BCE 26 April. The duration of Saros series 8 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 solar eclipses.
- The Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on 2512 BCE 27 July and ended on 961 BCE 13 February. The duration of Saros series 7 was 1550.6 years, and it contained 87 lunar eclipses.
- As of 2006, in our Solar System, eight of the bodies orbiting the Sun are considered to be planets.
- The atomic number of oxygen.
- The number of allotropes of carbon.
- The most stable allotrope of a sulphur molecule is made of eight sulphur atoms arranged in a rhombic form.
- The maximum number of electrons that can occupy a valence shell.
- The red pigment lycopene consists of eight isoprene units.
- A disphenoid crystal is bounded by eight scalene triangles arranged in pairs. A ditetragonal prism in the tetragonal crystal system has eight similar faces whose alternate interfacial angles only are equal.
- All spiders, and more generally all arachnids, have eight legs. Orb-weaver spiders of the cosmopolitan family Areneidae have eight similar eyes.
- The octopus and its cephalopod relatives in genus Argonauta have eight arms (tentacles).
- Compound coelenterates of the subclass or order Alcyonaria have polyps with eight-branched tentacles and eight septa.
- Sea anemones of genus Edwardsia have eight mesenteries.
- Animals of phylum Ctenophora swim by means of eight meridional bands of transverse ciliated plates, each plate representing a row of large modified cilia.
- The eight-spotted forester (genus Alypia, family Zygaenidae) is a diurnal moth having black wings with brilliant white spots.
- The ascus in fungi of the class Ascomycetes, following nuclear fusion, bears within it typically eight ascospores.
- Herbs of genus Coreopsis (tickseed) have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each.
- Timothy Leary identified a hierarchy of eight levels of consciousness.
- In human adult dentition there are eight teeth in each quadrant. The eighth tooth is the so-called wisdom tooth.
- There are eight cervical nerves on each side in man and most mammals.
- A byte is eight bits
- Many (mostly historic) computer architectures are eight-bit, among them the Nintendo Entertainment System
- Standard-8 and Super-8 are 8 mm film formats
- Video8, Hi8 and Digital8 are related 8 mm video formats
- On most phones, the 8 key is associated with the letters T, U, and V, but on the BlackBerry it is the key for B, N, and X.
- An eight may refer to an eight-cylinder engine or automobile. A V8 engine is an internal combustion engine with eight cylinders configured in two banks (rows) of four forming a "V" when seen from the end.
- A figure-eight knot (so named for its configuration) is a kind of stopper knot.
- The number eight written in parentheses is the code for the musical note in Windows Live Messenger
- On a seven-segment display, when an 8 is illuminated, all the display bulbs are on.
- The SI prefix for 10008 is yotta (Y), and for its reciprocal, yocto (y).
- In liquid measurement (United States customary units), there are eight fluid ounces in a cup, eight pints in a gallon and eight tablespoonfuls in a gill.
- There are eight furlongs in a mile.
- The clove, an old English unit of weight, was equal to eight pounds when measuring cheese.
- An eight may be an article of clothing of the eighth size.
- Force eight is the first wind strength attributed to a gale on the Beaufort scale when announced on a Shipping Forecast.
- Various types of buildings are usually eight-sided (octagonal), such as single-roomed gazebos and multi-roomed pagodas (descended from stupas; see religion section below).
- Eight caulicoles rise out of the leafage in a Corinthian capital, ending in leaves that support the volutes.
In religion, folk belief and divination
- The Dharmacakra, a Buddhist symbol, has eight spokes. The Buddha's principal teaching—the Four Noble Truths—ramifies as the Noble Eightfold Path.
- In Mahayana Buddhism, the branches of the Eightfold Path are embodied by the Eight Great Bodhisattvas: (Manjusri, Vajrapani, Avalokiteśvara, Maitreya, Ksitigarbha, Nivaranavishkambhi, Akasagarbha, and Samantabhadra). These are later (controversially) associated with the Eight Consciousnesses according to the Yogacara school of thought: consciousness in the five senses, thought-consciousness, self-consciousness, and unconsciousness-'consciousness' (alaya-vijñana). The 'irreversible' state of enlightenment, at which point a Bodhisattva goes on 'autopilot', is the Eight Ground or bhūmi. In general, 'eight' seems to be an auspicious number for Buddhists, e.g., the 'eight auspicious symbols' (the jewel-encrusted parasol; the goldfish (always shown as a pair, e.g., the glyph of Pisces); the self-replenishing amphora; the white kamala lotus-flower; the white conch; the eternal (Celtic-style, infinitely looping) knot; the banner of imperial victory; the eight-spoked wheel that guides the ship of state, or that symbolizes the Buddha's teaching). Similarly, Buddha's birthday falls on the 8th day of the 4th month of the Chinese calendar.
- The religious rite of brit milah (commonly known as circumcision) is held on a baby boy's eighth day of life.
- Hanukkah is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev.
- Shemini Atzeret (Hebrew: "Eighth Day of Assembly") is a one-day Jewish holiday immediately following the seven-day holiday of Sukkot.
- The spiritual Eighth Day, because the number 7 refers to the days of the week (which repeat themselves).
- The number of Beatitudes.
- In Revelation the Anti-Christ is the eighth king.
- The Eight Immortals are Chinese demigods.
- In Wicca, there are eight Sabbats, festivals, seasons, or spokes in the Wheel of the Year.
- In Hinduism, it is the number of wealth, abundance. The Goddess Lakshmi has eight forms. There are eight nidhi, or seats of wealth. There are also eight Guardians of the directions.
- In Taoism and Chinese cosmology, the eight trigrams of the Ba gua. "Ba gua" literally means "eight symbols".
- In Ancient Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad represents the eight primordial deities of creation.
- In Scientology there are 8 dynamics of existence
As a lucky number
- The number eight is considered to be a lucky number in Chinese and other Asian cultures. Eight (八; accounting 捌; pinyin bā) is considered a lucky number in Chinese culture because it sounds like the word meaning to generate wealth (發(T) 发(S); Pinyin: fā). Property with the number 8 may be valued greatly by Chinese. For example, a Hong Kong number plate with the number 8 was sold for $640,000. The opening ceremony of the Summer Olympics in Beijing started at 8 seconds and 8 minutes past 8 pm (local time) on 8 August 2008.
- Eight (八 hachi, ya?) is also considered a lucky number in Japanese culture, but the reason is different from that in Chinese culture. Eight gives an idea of growing prosperous, because the letter (八) broadens gradually.
- The Japanese thought eight (や ya?) as a holy number in the ancient times. The reason is less well understood, but it is thought that it is related to the fact they used eight to express large numbers vaguely such as manyfold (やえはたえ Yae Hatae?) (literally, eightfold and twentyfold), many clouds (やくも Yakumo?) (literally, eight clouds), millions and millions of Gods (やおよろずのかみ Yaoyorozu no Kami?) (literally, eight millions of Gods), etc. It is also guessed that the ancient Japanese gave importance to pairs, so some researchers guess twice as four (よ yo?), which is also guessed to be a holy number in those times because it indicates the world (north, south, east, and west) might be considered a very holy number.
- In numerology, 8 is the number of building, and in some theories, also the number of destruction.
- In astrology, Scorpio is the 8th astrological sign of the Zodiac.
- In the Middle Ages, 8 was the number of "unmoving" stars in the sky, and symbolized the perfection of incoming planetary energy.
In music and dance
- A note played for one-eighth the duration of a whole note is called an eighth note, or quaver.
- An octave, the interval between two notes with the same letter name (where one has double the frequency of the other), is so called because there are eight notes between the two on a standard major or minor diatonic scale, including the notes themselves and without chromatic deviation. The ecclesiastical modes are ascending diatonic musical scales of eight notes or tones comprising an octave.
- There are eight notes in the octatonic scale.
- There are eight musicians in a double quartet or an octet. Both terms may also refer to a musical composition for eight voices or instruments.
- Caledonians is a square dance for eight, resembling the quadrille.
- Albums with the number eight in their title include 8 by the Swedish band Arvingarna and The Meaning of 8 by Minnesota indie rock band Cloud Cult
- Dream Theater's eighth album Octavarium contains many different references to the number 8, including the number of songs and various aspects of the music and cover artwork
- "Eight maids a-milking" is the gift on the eighth day of Christmas in the carol "The Twelve Days of Christmas"
- The 8-track cartridge is a musical recording format
- "#8" is the stagename of Slipknot vocalist Corey Taylor
- "Too Many Eights" is a song by Athens, Georgia's Supercluster.
- Eight Seconds, a Canadian musical group popular in the 1980s with their most notable song "Kiss You (When It's Dangerous)"
- "Eight Days a Week" is a #1 single for the music group The Beatles.
In film and television
- 8 Man (or Eightman): 1963 Japanese manga and amine superhero.
- 8 Mile is a 2002 film directed by Curtis Hanson
- 8mm is a 1999 film directed by Joel Schumacher
- 8 Women (Original French title: 8 femmes) is a 2002 film directed by François Ozon
- Eight Below is a 2006 film directed by Frank Marshall
- Eight Legged Freaks is a 2002 film directed by Ellory Elkayem
- Eight Men Out is a 1988 film directed by John Sayles
- Jennifer Eight, also known as Jennifer 8, is a 1992 film written and directed by Bruce Robinson
- Eight Is Enough is an American television comedy-drama series
- In Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis, dialing an 8-chevron address will open a wormhole to another galaxy.
- Figure 8 is the fifth studio album by singer-songwriter Elliott Smith, released in the year 2000.
- Jon & Kate Plus 8 is an American reality television show
- The Weather Channel's segment Local on the 8s features daily and weekly forecasts for major cities in the United States
- The number 8 is referenced in an episode of The Simpsons, in which Barney Gumble composes a sound collage comprising repeated utterances of the number 8 over tape loops of his own burps. This in itself is a reference to The Beatles' "Revolution 9".
In sports and other games
- Eight-ball pocket billiards is played with a cue ball and 15 numbered balls, the black ball numbered 8 being the middle and most important one, as the winner is the player or side that legally pockets it after first pocketing its numerical group of 7 object balls (for other meanings see Eight ball (disambiguation)).
- Balklines divide a billiards table into eight outside compartments or divisions called balks. In balkline billiards the table also has eight anchor spaces.
- In the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad, the official opening was on 08/08/08 at 8:08:08 p.m. local time in Beijing, China.
- In football, the number 8 has historically been the number of the Central Midfielder.
- in baseball scorekeeping, the center fielder is designated as number 8.
- In rugby union, the only position without a proper name is the Number 8, a forward position.
- In most rugby league competitions (though not the European Super League, which uses static squad numbering), one of the two starting props wears the number 8.
- In rowing an "eight" refers to a sweep-oar racing boat with a crew of eight rowers plus a coxswain.
- In chess, each side has eight pawns and the board is made of 64 squares arranged in an eight by eight lattice. The eight queens puzzle is a challenge to arrange eight queens on the board so that none can capture any of the others.
- In the game of eights or Crazy Eights, each successive player must play a card either of the same suit or of the same rank as that played by the preceding player, or may play an eight and call for any suit. The object is to get rid of all one's cards first.
- In poker, a "dead man's hand" contains two pairs; aces and eights.
- The throw of eight in craps is called (in rhyming slang) an eighter from Decatur.
- While racing for DEI, Dale Earnhardt, Jr. raced in the #8 car in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series .
- Ralph Earnhardt, Dale Earnhardt, Jr.'s grandfather drove #8 in the NASCAR Sportsman Division and NASCAR Grand National Series
- In Israeli Football Premiere league, Maccabi Tel Aviv legendary star- Avi Nimni wore the number 8 and it retired with him.
- Nintendo's Mario Kart series:
- The jersey number 8 has been retired by several North American sports teams in honor of past playing greats or other key figures:
- In Major League Baseball:
- The Baltimore Orioles, for Hall of Famer Cal Ripken, Jr.
- The Boston Red Sox, for Hall of Famer Carl Yastrzemski.
- The Cincinnati Reds, for Hall of Famer Joe Morgan.
- The Montreal Expos, for Hall of Famer Gary Carter. The franchise continues to honor the number in its current incarnation as the Washington Nationals (although it initially planned to reissue all of the Expos' retired numbers).
- The New York Yankees, for Hall of Famers Yogi Berra and Bill Dickey.
- The Pittsburgh Pirates, for Hall of Famer Willie Stargell.
- In the NFL:
- The St. Louis Cardinals, for Hall of Famer Larry Wilson. The franchise, now the Arizona Cardinals, continues to honor the number.
- The San Francisco 49ers, for Hall of Famer Steve Young.
- The Dallas Cowboys have a policy of not retiring numbers. However, they have not issued #8 since the retirement of Hall of Famer Troy Aikman after the 2000 season.
- The New Orleans Saints have never formally retired the number, but have not reissued #8 since Archie Manning left the team during the 1982 season.
- In the NHL:
- The Boston Bruins, for Hall of Famer Cam Neely.
- The Minnesota North Stars, for Bill Goldsworthy. The franchise, now the Dallas Stars, continues to honor the number.
- The Ottawa Senators, for Frank Finnigan, the final surviving player from the original Senators team that won the 1927 Stanley Cup, and an ambassador for the group that returned the NHL to Ottawa.
- The St. Louis Blues, for Barclay Plager.
- The Quebec Nordiques retired the number for Marc Tardif. However, the team moved to Denver as the Colorado Avalanche after the 1994–95 season, and the Avalanche placed all of the Nordiques' retired numbers back into circulation.
- The number has yet to be retired in the NBA.
- In Major League Baseball:
- Nestlé sells a brand of chocolates filled with peppermint-flavoured cream called After Eight, referring to the time 8 p.m.
- There are eight vegetables in V8 juice
- In cooking recipes, there are approximately 8 pinches to a teaspoon
- Eights may refer to octosyllabic, usually iambic, lines of verse.
- The drott-kvaett, an Old Icelandic verse, consisted of a stanza of eight regular lines.
- In Terry Pratchett's Discworld series, eight is a holy number and is considered taboo. Eight is not safe to be said by wizards on the Discworld and is the number of Bel-Shamharoth. Also, there are eight days in a Disc week and eight colours in a Disc spectrum, the eighth one being Octarine
- Lewis Carroll's poem The Hunting of the Snark has 8 "fits" (cantos), which is noted in the full name "The Hunting of the Snark - An Agony, in Eight Fits
- 8 apparitions appear to Macbeth in Act 4 scene 1 of Shakespeare's Macbeth as representations of the 8 descendants of Banquo
- An "eighth" is a common measurement of marijuana, meaning an eighth of an ounce. It is also a common unit of sale for psilocybin mushrooms. Also, an eighth of an ounce of cocaine is commonly referred to as an "8-ball."
- Referring to the shape of the numeral, eight was represented in bingo slang, before political correctness, as "One Fat Lady". Eighty-eight was "Two Fat Ladies"
- The numeral "8" is sometimes used in writing to represent the syllable "ate", as in writing "H8" for "hate", or "congratul8ions" for "congratulations". Avril Lavigne's song "Sk8er Boi" uses this convention in the title. The search engine "Targ8" uses it to replace "et" in Target. Often found on vanity plates
- "Section 8" is common U.S. slang for "crazy", based on the U.S. military's Section 8 discharge for mentally unfit personnel
- The Housing Choice Voucher Program, operated by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, is commonly referred to as the Section 8 program, as this was the original section of the Act which instituted the program
- In Colombia and Venezuela, "volverse un ocho" (meaning to tie oneself in a figure 8) refers to getting in trouble or contradicting one's self.
- In China, '8' is used in chat speak as a term for parting. This is due to the closeness in pronunciation of '8' (bā) and the English word 'bye'.
- Eight is symbolic for lesbian sexual relations.
In other fields
||Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. (October 2014)|
- Eight, West Virginia, a community in the United States
- A double quatrefoil has eight foils used as the cadency mark of a ninth son.
- A duke's coronet, worn by a British or Irish duke, has eight conventional strawberry leaves upon the rim of the circlet.
- Eight extra facets are sometimes added around the culet at the lower pyramid of a brilliant diamond.
- I-8 is the designation of the US interstate highway that runs from San Diego, California to Casa Grande, Arizona
- Eight is the number of categories the VALS system uses to classify consumer groups, and the number of categories used by Fallon-McElligott's system for teen marketing
- War of the Eight Princes, a war in Chinese history
- "88" is the abbreviated terminology used by the Aryan Brotherhood for the Nazi salute, "Heil Hitler" – "H" being the eighth letter of the alphabet, twice
- The silver piece of eight was coined in the Spanish Empire and moved trade around the world. Examples include the Carolus dollar, cob and cut. A doubloon was worth 8 gold escudos or 16 pieces of eight.
- Eight elementary grades are included in the eight-four plan of school organization (along with four secondary grades).
- There are Eight Principles of Yong in Chinese calligraphy
- 8vo is shorthand for "octavo", a book size.
- The Eight - Eight American painters who exhibited together only once in 1908 in New York City. They joined this exhibition to oppose traditions upheld by the National Academy and help advance modernism in the United States. Five of the eight painters were associated with the Ashcan School: Robert Henri (1865–1929), George Luks (1867–1933), William Glackens (1870–1938), John Sloan (1871–1951), and Everett Shinn (1876–1953), along with Maurice Prendergast (1859–1924), Ernest Lawson (1873–1939), and Arthur Bowen Davies (1862–1928).
- Bryan Bunch, The Kingdom of Infinite Number. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company (2000): 88
- Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages: Common Turkic and Interturkic stems starting with letters «L», «M», «N», «P», «S», Vostochnaja Literatura RAS, 2003, 241f. (altaica.ru)
- the hypothesis is discussed critically (and rejected as "without sufficient support") by Werner Winter, 'Some thought about Indo-European numerals' in: Jadranka Gvozdanović (ed.), Indo-European Numerals, Walter de Gruyter, 1992, 14f.
- Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 395, Fig. 24.68[clarification needed]
- "Life Application New Testament Commentary", Bruce B. Barton. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2001. ISBN 0-8423-7066-8, ISBN 978-0-8423-7066-0. p. 1257
- Ang, Swee Hoon (1997). "Chinese consumers’ perception of alpha-numeric brand names". Journal of Consumer Marketing 14 (3): 220–233. doi:10.1108/07363769710166800.
- Steven C. Bourassa, Vincent S. Peng (1999). "Hedonic Prices and House Numbers: The Influence of Feng Shui". International Real Estate Review 2 (1): 79–93.
- "Patriot games: China makes its point with greatest show" by Richard Williams, The Guardian, published 9 August 2008
- Barney's burp song
- A to Z Encyclopaedia of Ice Hockey
- urban dictionary
- psilocybin mushrooms
- , Targ8 your search engine
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- The Octonions, John C. Baez