Near-close central rounded vowel

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Near-close central rounded vowel
ʊ̈
ʉ̞
IPA number 321 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA U\ or }_o
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ʊ̈ (centralized [ʊ]) and ʉ̞ (lowered [ʉ]). The third edition of the OED adopted an unofficial extension of the IPA, ᵿ, that is a conflation of ʊ and ʉ, and represents either [ʊ̈] or free variation between [ʊ] and [ə].

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cornish [example needed]
Dutch Standard Belgian[1] hut About this sound [ɦʊ̈t]  'hut' The Belgian vowel is somewhat lower, is typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/, and it corresponds to [ɵ] in the Netherlands.[2] The Netherlandic vowel is typically transcribed /y/, and it corresponds to [y] in Belgium.[1] The latter has been also described as near-front [ʏ].[3] See Dutch phonology
Netherlandic[2] fuut [fʊ̈t] 'grebe'
English Some speakers euphoria [jʊ̈ˈfɔə̯ɹiə] 'euphoria' Reduced form of the vowel /uː/, though may also be realized as [uː] or [ə]. See English phonology.
Cockney[4] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good.[4] Otherwise it's near-back [ʊ].
Cultivated
South African[5]
Younger, especially female speakers. Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]
Southeastern English[6] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[7] Short allophone of /u/.
Irish Munster[8] giobal [ˈɟʊ̟bˠɰəɫ̪] 'rag' Slightly retracted;[8] allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant.[8] See Irish phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[9] gull [ɡʊ̈l] 'gold' Somewhat fronted; can be transcribed /ʉ/. See Norwegian phonology
Stavanger[10] ond [ʊ̈n] 'bad' Corresponds to [ʊ] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[11] ютиться [jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]