Near-close central rounded vowel

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Near-close central rounded vowel
ʊ̈
ʉ̞
IPA number 321 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA U\ or }_o
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ʊ̈ (centralized [ʊ]) and ʉ̞ (lowered [ʉ]). The third edition of the OED adopted an unofficial extension of the IPA, ᵿ, that is a conflation of ʊ and ʉ, and represents either [ʊ̈] or free variation between [ʊ] and [ə].

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard Belgian[1] hut About this sound [ɦʊ̈t]  'hut' The Belgian vowel is somewhat lower, is typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/, and it corresponds to [ɵ] in the Netherlands. The Netherlandic vowel is typically transcribed /y/, and it corresponds to [y] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
Netherlandic[2] fuut [fʊ̈t] 'grebe'
English Some speakers euphoria [jʊ̈ˈfɔə̯ɹiə] 'euphoria' Reduced form of the vowel /uː/, though may also be realized as [uː] or [ə]. See English phonology.
Cockney[3] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good.[3] Otherwise it's near-back [ʊ].
Cultivated
South African[4]
Younger, especially female speakers. Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]
Southeastern English[5] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[6] Short allophone of /u/.
Norwegian Standard Eastern[7] gull [ɡʊ̈l] 'gold' Somewhat fronted; can be transcribed /ʉ/. See Norwegian phonology
Stavanger[8] ond [ʊ̈n] 'bad' Corresponds to [ʊ] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[9] ютиться [jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics 
  • Mott, Brian (2011), "Traditional Cockney and Popular London Speech", Dialectologia 9: 69–94, ISSN 2013-2247 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173