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Usage in various languages
Croatian and Serbian
"â" is not a letter in the Croatian and Serbian, but simply an "a" with the circumflex. It is used only occasionally, in order to disambiguate homographs which differ only by length of the vowel. Such situation is most common in (but not exclusive to) the plural genitive case, thus the name "genitive sign" for the circumflex and is pronounced as a long vowel. For example, "Ja sam sâm." (English: I am alone.)
|Schrøter 1817||Modern Faroese|
|Brinhlid situr uj gjiltan Stouli,
Teâ hit veâna Vujv,
Drevur hoon Sjúra eâv Nordlondun
Uj Hildarhaj tiil sujn.
|Brynhild situr í gyltum stóli,
tað hitt væna vív,
dregur hon Sjúrða av Norðlondum
í Hildarheið til sín.
Â is not used in modern Faroese, however.
Â in the French language is used as the letter "a" with a circumflex accent. It is a remnant of old French, where a vowel was followed, with some exceptions, by the consonant "s". For example, the modern form bâton (English: stick) comes from the ancient French baston. Phonetically, "â" is pronounced as /ɑ/, but only in dialects that distinguish it from /a/.
Â is used to represent the /ɑː/ sound.
Â is the 3rd letter of the Romanian alphabet and represents /ɨ/. This sound is also represented in Romanian as letter î. The difference between the two is that â is used in the middle of the word, as in "România", while î is used at the ends: "înțelegere" (understanding), "a urî" (to hate). A compound word starting or ending with the letter î will retain it, even if it goes in the middle of the word: "neînțelegere" (miss-understanding)
- Ầ ầ
- Ẩ ẩ
- Ẫ ẫ
- Ấ ấ
- Ậ ậ
Â is used to indicate the consonant before "a" is palatalised, as in "kâğıt" (paper). It is also used to indicate /aː/ in words where the long vowel changes the meaning, as in "adet" (pieces) and "âdet" (tradition).
In Portuguese, â is used to mark a stressed /ɐ/ in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word, as in "lâmina" (blade) and "râguebi" (rugby). Where the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, the circumflex accent is not used. Â /ɐ/ contrasts with á, pronounced /a/.
In Welsh, â is used to represent long stressed a [aː] when, without the circumflex, the vowel would be pronounced as short [a], e.g., âr [aːr] "arable", as opposed to ar [ar] "on", or gwâr [ɡwaːr] "civilised, humane", rather than gwar [ɡwar] "nape of the neck". It is often found in final syllables when two occurrences of the letter a combine to produce one long stressed vowel. This commonly happens when a verb stem ending in stressed a combines with the nominalising suffix -ad, as in cantiata- + -ad giving caniatâd [kanjaˈtaːd] "permission" and also when a singular noun ending in a receives the plural suffix -au, e.g., drama + -au becoming dramâu [draˈmaɨ, draˈmai] "dramas, plays". It is also useful in writing borrowed words with final stress, e.g. brigâd [brɪˈɡaːd] "brigade".
A circumflex is also used in the word â, which is both a preposition meaning "with, by means of, as", and also the third person non-past singular of the verbal noun mynd "go". This distinguishes it in writing from similarly pronounced a "and; whether; who, which, that".
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX||LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX|
|UTF-8||195 130||C3 82||195 162||C3 A2|
|Numeric character reference||Â||Â||â||â|
|Named character reference||Â||â|
TeX and LaTeX
Â and â are obtained by the commands \^A and \^a.
- Omniglot - writing systems & languages of the world
Letter A with diacritics
Letters using circumflex accent ( ◌̂ )