Ê

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Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter in the Friulan, Kurdish, Gagauz, and Vietnamese languages. The letter also appears in Afrikaans, French, Portuguese, Welsh, and Albanian dialects as a variant of the letter "e", as well as being used in certain Chinese and Ukrainian transliteration systems. It is also used in Dutch but only in loanwords, mostly from French. Some examples are: enquête, fêteren, tête-à-tête.

Usage in various languages[edit]

Afrikaans[edit]

Ê is not considered a separate letter in Afrikaans, but rather, as aforementioned, a variation of the letter "e".

Chinese[edit]

In Chinese pinyin ê represents /ɛ/. It corresponds to in zhuyin symbol.

Dutch[edit]

In Dutch, the ê is also used, this has been taken over from the French language, it changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/.

French[edit]

In French, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/. Diacritics are not usually considered to be letters of the French alphabet.

Friulan[edit]

Ê is used to represent the /e/ and /ɛː/ sounds.

Kurdish[edit]

Ê is the 7th letter of the Kurdish Kurmanji alphabet and represents /e/.

Portuguese[edit]

In Portuguese, ê is used to mark a stressed /e/ in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word, as in "dê" (give!) and "pêssego" (peach). Where the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, the circumflex accent is not used. Ê /e/ contrasts with é, pronounced /ɛ/.

Ukrainian[edit]

Ê is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Ukrainian transliteration as the letter Є.

Vietnamese[edit]

Ê is the 9th letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /e/. In Vietnamese phonology, diacritics can be added to form the following five forms to represent five tones of ê.

  • Ề ề
  • Ể ể
  • Ễ ễ
  • Ế ế
  • Ệ ệ

Welsh[edit]

In Welsh, ê is used to represent long stressed e [eː] when, without the circumflex, the vowel would be pronounced as short [ɛ], e.g.. llên [ɬeːn] "literature", as opposed to llen [ɬɛn] "curtain", or gêm [ɡeːm] "game", rather than gem [ɡɛm] "gem, jewel". It is useful in writing borrowed words with final stress, e.g. apêl [apˈeːl] "appeal".

Character mappings[edit]

Unicode character set contains 2 precomposed characters as / ế, and / , to represent the second and the fourth tone of ê. The first and the third tone of ê have to be represented by combining diacritical marks, like ê̄ (ê̄) and ê̌ (ê̌).

Character Ê ê
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 202 U+00CA 234 U+00EA
UTF-8 195 138 C3 8A 195 170 C3 AA
Numeric character reference Ê Ê ê ê
Named character reference Ê ê
EBCDIC family 114 72 82 52
ISO 8859-1/3/9/14/15/16 202 CA 234 EA

See also[edit]

External links[edit]