Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter in the Friulan, Kurdish, Gagauz, and Vietnamese languages. The letter also appears in Afrikaans, French, Portuguese, Welsh, and Albanian dialects as a variant of the letter "e", as well as being used in certain Chinese and Ukrainian transliteration systems. It is also used in Dutch but only in loanwords, mostly from French. Some examples are: enquête, fêteren, tête-à-tête.
Usage in various languages
Ê is not considered a separate letter in Afrikaans, but rather, as aforementioned, a variation of the letter "e".
In Dutch, the ê is also used, this has been taken over from the French language, it changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/.
In French, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/. Diacritics are not usually considered to be letters of the French alphabet.
Ê is used to represent the /e/ and /ɛː/ sounds.
In Portuguese, ê is used to mark a stressed /e/ in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word, as in "dê" (give!) and "pêssego" (peach). Where the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, the circumflex accent is not used. Ê /e/ contrasts with é, pronounced /ɛ/.
- Ề ề
- Ể ể
- Ễ ễ
- Ế ế
- Ệ ệ
In Welsh, ê is used to represent long stressed e [eː] when, without the circumflex, the vowel would be pronounced as short [ɛ], e.g.. llên [ɬeːn] "literature", as opposed to llen [ɬɛn] "curtain", or gêm [ɡeːm] "game", rather than gem [ɡɛm] "gem, jewel". It is useful in writing borrowed words with final stress, e.g. apêl [apˈeːl] "appeal".
Unicode character set contains 2 precomposed characters as Ế / ế, and Ề / ề, to represent the second and the fourth tone of ê. The first and the third tone of ê have to be represented by combining diacritical marks, like ê̄ (ê̄) and ê̌ (ê̌).
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX||LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX|
|UTF-8||195 138||C3 8A||195 170||C3 AA|
|Numeric character reference||Ê||Ê||ê||ê|
|Named character reference||Ê||ê|